There is a continuity between Soviet-era and Putin-regime elites. “The proportion of Putin-regime elites with Soviet nomenklatura origin (which comprised only 1–3% of the population during the Soviet period) constitutes approximately 60% of contemporary elites.”

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Not a surprise, no? Anyone with any money and status picked the flesh from the bones of the Soviet Union to create the oligarchical class structure that exists in the RF.


I did a paper in college about Italian bureaucrats, from pre-WW1 to post-WW2. Other than deaths, retirements and replacements of the former, close to 100% continuity.


This is extremely important to understand. We have the same situation in Hungary where the transition to democracy failed because there were no consequences for the political elite serving soviet interests.


This was similar to West Germany after WW2. Society doesn’t stop but carry’s on. My grandfather, a Jew, returned to his engineering position in Germany. The town and district Kreis , just continued on. There were six million Nazi members, many the business owners, landed gentry, academic elite, etc. of which likely 98% in West Germany had little disruption in their social status.


How different is this for other countries that have transitioned?