In Medieval Europe, what would happen to children if their parents were executed for crime?

Read the Story

Show Top Comments

They were moved into a foundling home or orphanage, if some citizen cared.
Before orphaned kids were usually brought into slavery, but with the middle ages starting from Italy this custom was brought north, esp. in christian societies. The first in the north was in Köln 1341, it spread from there. first for foundlings, then for orphans.

reini_urban

Additional question:

Couldn’t the eldest son become the head of the household and look after the others? Would there be a cutoff age for that where they wouldn’t be taken as foundlings? If I had to guess I’d say around 14?

_PM_ME_PANGOLINS_

First and foremost, medieval Europeans did not view autism medically. At best, it was a quirk in someone’s personality and at worst it was an affliction of the devil. (Before you crucify me, I have a Masters in late antiquity and early medieval history and I have a child on the autism spectrum). Kids with down syndrome went untreated and often died young. This does explain why the condition went unresearched until the 19th and 20th century. But parents weren’t monsters, stories of exposing their disabled kids to the elements to die can only be found in in extreme cases during a war or famine. Most simply died in childhood, which was commonplace in general.

Now back to your question; what happened if the parents died?

Well, it depends on the status of the parents. For Kings, dukes and Barons, if the child was the heir, a minority was established and a regent named to rule until the child came of age. For lesser nobles, a member of the household, like an uncle or cousin would act as regent. Needless to say many children “went missing” or “died mysteriously” under these conditions. On some occasions, a chamberlain could also be named as regent.

For peasants the story was a bit different. The church did operate orphanages as well as hospitals that did care for orphaned children, many of whom later would become members of the clergy or would work for the church as laborers or craftsmen. In more remote communities, the children would sometimes be adopted by neighbors and cared for until age 12, when they were married off, entered into an apprenticeship or sent to work the fields. Child morality was common and if someone could “adopt” an orphan, it would be a benefit to the family.

As mentioned before, only on rare occasions were children left to die. Usually during war, famine, or later during the black death. It was only during the 16th and 17th century during the reformation and enclosure movement do we see hordes of orphans wandering the streets of London and Paris.

Archimedes1985

Did women actually get executed for practicing witchcraft during the middle ages? Because I thought this whole witch thing only came in fashion at the end of the 15th century. I’m sorry, I’m not answering your question, but this question just popped up in my head and I thought I might as well ask it

dommestommeling

Slavery of christians and selling christian to non christians was technically banned in Europe at that time. The pages and servants of kings were of noble blood, not plebeians. If you had no other member of family to take care of you (ie. older sibling, aunt/uncle etc), you could end up in a orphanage (if it existed), a monastery, or if you were lucky some good soul might pick you up. Otherwise a life of a beggar/prostitution it is for you.

This of course only applies to town dwellers/bourgeoisie, village life was different.

Ghost963cz

Who else was experimented on by Henry Murray?

Read the Story

Show Top Comments

It looks like the names of the students were kept confidential, probably the only ethical thing about the studies, so I’m not sure how you could find it anything about them unless they have spoken about it themselves publicly. What a crazy thing to have happen though.

BugblatterBeastTrall

The experiment wasn’t even bad. Ted has been on record saying it was only one time for like an hour that was uncomfortable, the rest is made up. It wasn’t the reason he became the unabomber.

CapsuleCorpse

You saw the TIL yesterday too 😂 I also read all about MKUltra for a few hours last night.

PapaPancake8

I know it’s not exactly what you asked for, but if you’re looking for other results from MK Ultra like Ted Kazcynski, Whitey Bulger was a participant in the experiments going on in San Francisco when he was imprisoned at Alcatraz. In terms of a body count and criminal notoriety he is quite comparable.

cdobbs1207

The Unabombers way of thinking is not abnormal to be honest. My perspective of the world is very similar, I have no intentions of mailing bombs to people…. but I do think that humanity is hurtling towards self destruction.

The Earth is already our perfect home, and we are destroying it for the sake of ‘progress’ towards a life where more and more people are miserable.

​

Just saying, experiments didnt make him that way. Society did

Joshua-S-B

How common was gold trade during the viking era?

Read the Story

Show Top Comments

Silver was far more important to the western european economy than gold at this time.

While there was gold in western Europe at this time (jewelry mostly but also arabic dinars and (pre-)migration era coinage, silver was the dominant form of metal wealth and definitely the dominant form of coinage.

Tons upon tons of carolingean silver (because the coinage of the viking era was still mostly carolingean pennies) made it into the hands of vikings, through ransom, loot and trade. Most of it was melted down, but isotope anlysis of viking jewelry suggests that most pieces were made from carolingean silver.

The total amount of gold on the other hand can probably be counted in kilos.

fiendishrabbit

For payment, Silver is often mentionned :

Danegeld payments (i.e. the Viking raid exemption tax) are often recorded as “X pounds of silver” : Æthelred paid ~3.3 Tons of Silver in 991 for exemple.

For looting, my understanding is that anything compact and of value was fair game: jewels, but also tools and weapons, or even slaves

Pippin1505

The vast majority of coins, jewelry and bullion traded in northwestern Europe during the Viking age was silver. The most common silver coins were produced by English, Frankish, German and Andalusian/Arabic polities, and later by the Scandinavian kingdoms as well. Gold was more common in the Middle East, particularly in Persia, but also in the Levant and the Byzantine Empire. It’s important to note, however, that even in areas where gold was more available, silver was usually the dominant metal for specie due to its value/rarity as compared to gold.

In Northwestern Europe, precious metals and jewelry were sometimes used to pay off invaders (specifically in England and France), and this would sometimes include gold, but again was more commonly silver. Silver was the main monetary commodity in that era/region, but coins were not always plentiful (especially during periods of war/unrest when governments did not have the resources to mint coinage).

Barter was always a popular option (goods, especially food/livestock, traded instead of coins). Silver was often hacked apart from its original source—whether from a coin or from jewelry, such as arm bands, rings, crucifixes, etc.—and used as raw pieces for trade.

Vikings and other warriors carried their wealth on them conspicuously for status purposes in the form of mail and weapons, but also in jewelry like armbands for the purpose of trade; if they ran out of coins and needed to buy something, they could hack their armband apart with an axe and use the pieces as a sort of coinage.

PDV87

Primarily Silver, especially in the form of Arabic Coins were (most silver during this period came from the Arabic World) used in regards to “viking” trade in the early middle ages. Which can be seen in the large finds of these in Gotland and Sweden. Silks and gold were used aswell although to a lesser extent.

​

Especially Hedeby became a large centre of Trade in Scandinavia, if not the biggest, controlling several major trade routes into and out of Europe.

​

Because of their farreaching trade network, the “vikings” to a point restarted the use of bullion in exchange of goods in Europe.

Tristers1

You know, that’s something that I’ve been curious about for a long time. Just how prevalent was this insane desire for gold around the world? Clearly, it was highly prized in the Middle East and Northern Africa for many thousands of years. It was clearly a thing for Europe since the Roman empire. And it was obviously highly prized by the Chinese, Japanese, etc.. for millenia.

What was the most advanced civilization that didn’t have such a hardon for gold?

jdlech

Did Japanese forces use conscripted forces from other countries in WWII, similar to the Germans?

Read the Story

Show Top Comments

IIRC, there was a Korean soldier captured in France. He was captured by the Soviets in Manchuko as a Japanese conscript, sent to a POW camp in western Soviet Union, subsequently conscripted to the soviet army, then conscripted to the German Army and captured by the US in Normandy.

There is fuzzyness surrounding his whole ordeal but most seems pretty legit.

Found it: Yang Kyoungjong

Dobermanpure

They used hundreds of thousands of troops from their puppet states like Manchukuo, Mengjiang and the Reorganized National Government of China, but IIRC these troops in general were considered unreliable and were mainly utilized fo fight insurgents and keep public order.

AFAIK they didn’t use conscription in the occupied territories in China, but I am not sure if it was the same in other countries.

MiddleInformation

I’m from Taiwan and my oma would tell me about how very few of the local boys pressed into the conscription service would return as many of them died overseas and their remains were not sent back. Her husband was almost a kamikaze pilot but due to poor his poor eyesight he was not a suitable candidate.

Lectovai

I know they had Koreans and some Indians defected

AlcoholicWombat

My grandad’s brother was conscripted in Malaya and sent to Burma on the frontline of their push into India. He was stuck there at the time of the Japanese surrender, managed to scrounge his way back to some family in Tamil Nadu, where he was able to write to my grandad. My grandad then sent him some money so he could take the boat back to Malaya in 1946.

-ShadowPuppet

How did Japan recover from the dropping of Fat Man and Little Boy? How long did it take for them to rebuild the infrastructure that was lost due to the atomic bombs?

Read the Story

Show Top Comments

Keep in mind that while the two atomic bombings were a demonstration of force and technology, there was nothing special about the destruction itself.

The destruction brought by the “old school” fire bombing of Tokyo was much more extensive.

So , simple economic reconstruction in the Cold War era, like in Germany (see Dresden for another “non atomic” razing)

The US occupation force kept a close watch ( and tight information control) over the nuclear survivors themselves

Pippin1505

Longterm Radioactive fallout isn’t really a thing with nuclear bombs. The initial blast puts out insane amounts of radiation, but its basically all gone in a week’s time. That is why you can pretty much start rebuilding immediately.

Its complex, but basically, the fuel in a nuclear bomb is VERY pure and it kinda ALL gets used up in one explosion and the byproducts of the reaction are very quickly safe.

Contrast that to a nuclear power plant where the fuel is barely refined at all and contains all sorts of different elements that decay down a lot of different paths. Then when you have a disaster like chernobyl, as big as the explosion was, it didn’t really use up much of the fuel. All that radioactive fuel is still there decaying and emitting radiation.

blitzkrieg9

Just to add some interesting perspective, hopefully. My grandma was in Nagasaki when it was bombed and my grandpa came over with the Marines to help rebuild afterwards (that’s how they ended up meeting).

From both of their stories it didn’t take long. The emotional toll was the biggest thing for my grandma. Lots of trauma and distrust. But she somehow managed to move forward and marry an American. From her words that half of Nagasaki that was bombed was just total destruction, but she said it didn’t take long to rebuild and come back.

I will say that it was hard to get them to talk about it when I wanted to hear stories. I would hear it every once in a while, but I could tell it was something that was locked down. Very vague details, couldn’t find the right words either since English was her second language. She would oblige me when I would ask her for a story for history class in high school or whatever, but again very vague details.

I do remember though she did say she lost friends and that it was crazy that they were alive one day and disappeared the next. Just…gone. Seemingly out of the blue all of these lives were gone when they had nothing to do with what was going on. Stores, people, roads, etc all wiped off the earth because of a conflict they didn’t have a hand in. It made me re-think a lot of the narrative of war in general. So much collateral damage due to the decision of the powerful.

(Just to make it clear, I was young when I asked her for stories. She moved in with us when my grandpa died when I was in high school so at that point I’d realized how big of an impact that event was in her life so I didn’t ask her about it unless it was for a class assignment and even then I think I only did it once)

ILLusi0n02

While Macarthur’s generalship gets too much credit, his partnership with Shigeru Yoshida (as Governor and Prime Minister) does not get enough. Their combined genius put Japan on the path to prosperity. I’d never heard of it until one of Richard Nixon’s books where he talks about meeting Yoshida. If you are interested in the post war rebuilding story these are the guys to read about.

txbomr

American support ironically. They needed a country/base to keep pressure on the communists (PRC and Soviets) and so America helped rebuild them.

Plus Japanese social and economic policies i.e. Democratic Socialism. Unions, social safety net, good pay etc…

Vestolord

Silly Questions Saturday, September 12, 2020

Read the Story

Show Top Comments

Will private messages in social media and other messaging platforms be just as important as letters were from the past if it was from a very successful or influential individual? Moreover, will companies allow relatives of the individual have access or at least provide them a transcript of all the messages he/she sent if they requested it?

I mean the kind that makes you wonder what was going on through their mind at that particular moment or event of that persons life or trying to find meaning in a literary work of that person by examining his chats or messages.

heavyarmszero

Why did people only try to escape across the berlin wall and not the larger border between east and west germany?

flightoftheintruder

When did the concept of “retro” come about? When did we start referencing earlier styles in fashion and design?

Jalmerk

Why is a pirate stereotypically seen with a parrot? Is there an historical figure this is based on?

LordBadgerFlaps

During and after the Watergate scandal and the Nixon resignation, were there still people who supported Nixon and continued to feel that he had done nothing wrong and/or had been a great president? What percentage of the population continued to support Nixon?

catdoctor

Silly Questions Saturday, September 12, 2020

Read the Story

Show Top Comments

Will private messages in social media and other messaging platforms be just as important as letters were from the past if it was from a very successful or influential individual? Moreover, will companies allow relatives of the individual have access or at least provide them a transcript of all the messages he/she sent if they requested it?

I mean the kind that makes you wonder what was going on through their mind at that particular moment or event of that persons life or trying to find meaning in a literary work of that person by examining his chats or messages.

heavyarmszero

Why did people only try to escape across the berlin wall and not the larger border between east and west germany?

flightoftheintruder

When did the concept of “retro” come about? When did we start referencing earlier styles in fashion and design?

Jalmerk

Why is a pirate stereotypically seen with a parrot? Is there an historical figure this is based on?

LordBadgerFlaps

During and after the Watergate scandal and the Nixon resignation, were there still people who supported Nixon and continued to feel that he had done nothing wrong and/or had been a great president? What percentage of the population continued to support Nixon?

catdoctor

Hear in real time the Chilean 1973 Coup D’etat as heard by Chilean radio listeners, provided by the Museo de la Memoria y los Derechos Humanos.

Read the Story

Show Top Comments

Thanks for sharing. My father was a university student at that time. As a result of these events, some of his family members had to flee the country for their own safety. With myself being an American and a Chilean-American, this date can have a double meaning.

prellerbot5000

So much human misery. All because the CIA wanted to make an example of the Chilean people for democratically voting for a socialist.

End_Of_Samsara

My new teacher was in the palace when the bombing ocurred. He said it was a very scary situation, he was just 26 at the time!

GeneralPato007

I watched a Hawker Hunter try and take out the the local radio station so it would stop broadcasting. I was 9 at the time and was getting ready to go to school when everything started.

A year later I was in Italy as a political refuge at the age of 10.

Temetnoscecubed

How to Write Fake Global History

Read the Story

Show Top Comments

This reminds me of *the History of the Siege of Lisbon* by Jose Saramago. I don’t think he won the nobel in literature for that one but IIRC it was part of the consideration. It’s an excellent work of fiction which contains both a false history of the Siege of Lisbon and the story of an author writing a fake history (which is also a love story).

scoff-law

Worrying, especially as many people won’t read it fact check for themselves.

lashed1

Looks like whenever somebody brings up Jared Diamond on this sub. Interesting read!

Ceterum_Censeo_

Whats this about the Ottomans influencing Protestantism?

username9909864

This is exactly my point on the spanish black legend. Rarely studied or acknowledged outside Spain or hispanists circle it creates various problems. The first one being that the image of Spain in the continent specially for their former colonies is of a genocidal country who brought nothing good but on the other hand the lack of proper counter points to Spain historians create a rather white legend of Spain where very few or any crime were comitted.

In the best of cases, these historians make reasonable claims on the image 16th century Spain has in the other world and in other cases they use francoist ideals to justify Spain.

arnodorian96