TIL 71% of U.S. youth would not currently qualify for military service due to their heath, physical appearance, or educational background. (10/19/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Military recruiter responds “I can get you a waiver for that!” Edit: Wow this post really took off. So this quote is actually something that happened to me. In 2006 I needed to enlist in the military. I really wanted to work on the reactors in submarines. I don't know why I picked that path, but it just seemed challenging enough that it would be fruitful in civilian life. So I go to the navy recruiter's office and they just so happened to share a lobby with the other branches. There are tons of pamphlets telling you about careers you can sign up for. I find the brochure for Nuclear Reactor Engineers... and it says you have to be 24 or less. I Had just turned 25. (25 is late to go in, believe me I know.) The military job I wanted was unavailable to me, at that time the only recruiter in his office was the Air Force recruiter. I talked to him and he got me shipped off to take the ASVAB and do my medical in processing. Then I came home after signing my intent to enlist with the Air Force in their Delayed Entry Program. During the delayed entry program you routinely visit the recruiter to ask questions and make sure you haven't become a drug addict or something, I don't know. During one of these visits I was leaving the Air Force Recruiters office and I saw the Navy Recruiter for the first time. He saw me and instantly said "What are you seeing that guy for?" "I just signed up for the Air Force." I said. "Well, Why didn't you come see me?!" "When I came to see you, you were out of the office. And the only Job I wanted was to be a Nuke, but the Brochure said I was too old." "I could have gotten you a waiver for that!" he exclaimed. "You should have put that in the brochure." I replied. And so that is why what I said up above is in quotes.


Sorry son, not with that face.


I saw an old government training film that stated that it is every American man's patriotic duty to be in shape in case he is called to defend the country. The film was introducing the president's physical fitness test.


My son was medically disqualified because he has eczema. Understandable because broken skin could lead to an infection...blah blah blah. His recruiter told him he could get him a medical waiver for that then told him he should probably just “not mention it” during the medical exam. Another recruiter in the office piped in and said “oh yeah, just don’t tell them. I’m deathly allergic to bees and I just never told anyone.”


Something most people don’t know either is how many people are kicked out in the first year or two. Drugs usually, but being fat and failing PT tests, sleep apnea, just being late nonstop, DUIs, sexual assault, nobody ever thinks of this. These are my experiences from just being in the AF for 5 years too edit: i get it you twats, sleep apnea isn’t the most serious but when you never show up to work on time despite paperwork, you get booted. christ


TIL that after years of competition between Chuck E Cheese and Showbiz Pizza, Chuck E Cheese went bankrupt and was bought by Showbiz Pizza, who then proceeded to rebrand their locations as Chuck E Cheese. (10/16/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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This is like killing your enemy and wearing their skin as a trophy...


"we don't wanna beat you, we wanna be you"


Honeywell was bought out by a larger but less well known company. So that company just rebranded itself as Honeywell.


The whole story is even more convoluted. The founder of Showbiz Pizza used to work for Chuck E Cheese. He stole the concept, started his own competing business, out competed CEC, then bought them out. Then all the Show Biz Pizza franchises were rebranded as Chuck E Cheese. The Animatronic Arcade Pizza Entertainaurant family tree is actually a family wreath.


Showbiz: you know what we’re missing? A rat mascot.


TIL that the US Army never gave the Native Americans smallpox infested blankets as a tool of genocide. The US did inflict countless atrocities against the natives, but the smallpox blankets story was fabricated by a University of Colorado professor. (10/20/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Not just "a University of Colorado professor," but the notorious Ward Churchill who called the World Trade Center workers "little Eichmanns" and who lied about being Native American. He was fired from the university for academic misconduct. EDIT: We get it. Elizabeth Warren lol. Please don't leave me another 50 replies all saying the same thing.


I thought it was the british during the indian wars


All I know, being German/Cherokee... Is that everytime I am gifted a blanket, I want to invade Poland.


The US army? Like after 1775? I’ve never heard this; I’ve only heard about the European colonists doing that.


The only record is of the British doing this in one battle (technically it was a siege) during Pontiac's War, before the American Revolution.


TIL that “Inemuri”, in Japan the practice of napping in public, may occur in work, meetings or classes. Sleeping at work is considered a sign of dedication to the job, such that one has stayed up late doing work or worked to the point of complete exhaustion, and may therefore be excusable. (10/19/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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What this title misses is that you're also obliged to work hours of unpaid overtime. You should never be seen going home before the people on the rung above you, no matter how late it is. This means if your boss', boss', boss' boss is doing a late night, it'll be hours before your boss gets to go home and hours and hours before you do. Combine that with horrible commutes, low wages relative to cost of living and huge competition for sallaryman jobs, and you have a society of people who regularly work themselves to death, pulling 100+ hour weeks every week for bare essentials.


I presented a technical paper at a conference in Japan many years ago. Among the attendees were half a dozen people who sat in the back and slept the whole time. I did not really think of it until someone after the talk was over asked me how many sleepers I had. I said 6 and asked why the question. I was told that meant that there were 6 important people who wanted the proceedings but were too busy to attend themselves so they sent underlings to the talk so they can pick up the presentation papers. The underlings are typically way overworked for the reasons pointed out above and they personally have no interest in the talk, so they just sleep.


They made it normal to overwork their people to the point of killing them, then made up a BS story about how *normal* it is for someone to fall asleep from fucking exhaustion, by all means, fuck their work slavery culture.


Met some guys in Tokyo who would party at the club until like 6am then head back into work to sleep there. They weren't going to be productive or anything, they just needed to be there to show dedication like this post is saying.


In the US sleeping at work is a sign that one stayed up too late last night playing Fortnite and prioritizes their social life over their work.


TIL that Measles can cause immune amnesia. When infected with Measles the virus replaces your memory cells with new ones and essentially resets your immune system. You are then not only infected with Measles but are susceptible to infections that you previously had built immunity to. (10/17/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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To put this into a real life context, there's quite a lot of data from developing countries showing that measles can increase all-cause mortality in children for up to 12 months post-infection. It's also a well-known trigger for decompensation of malnutrition in children in those settings- I've seen it myself in Uganda.


Could this be used to help with allergies or autoimmune disorders?


As someone with two autoimmune diseases I would welcome a "reset" of my immune system.


And THIS is the disease that's spreading again because of Plague enthusiasts refuse to vaccinate their kids?! Fucking evil POS people


Can we all agree to call this "immunesia" moving forward?


TIL in the card game Arboretum, tie-breakers are decided by players each planting a tree, coming back in 5 years, and seeing which one grew the tallest. (10/16/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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There was a mining themed board game I bought like 5 years ago that I only played once with a friend. As it turned out we tied in score, then in components for the vehicle, and then in whatever the last real tiebreaker was. The "final tiebreaker" is the first person to dig a ~~5~~ 10 foot deep hole in their backyard wins. We both shrugged and decided to leave the game undecided. About three years later I was helping my dad dig a hole in his yard to plant a tree that he keeps indoors during the winter, I took a picture of the hole and sent it to my friend without a caption. Within a minute of sending he texted back "God damn it!". He knew exactly what I was meaning. Edit: Per /u/Radjago, The name of the game is Undermining by Matt Tolman, published by Z-Man Games.


Arboretum is a blast, and is of our best sellers at my store. I hope it becomes a thing in the casual gaming world.


So it is still faster than a Monopoly game?


In the game Nothing Personal a tie that can't be resolved is broken by the first person to make it to the roof and throw the game off the top.


Which tree species would work the best for this (highest growth in 5 years)? Does bamboo count as a tree?


TIL of “The Milk”. In 1994, a student at MIT bought a carton of milk but forgot to use it, and rediscovered it 10 months later. Instead of binning it he threw a ‘birthday’ for it. A cult following developed for this legendary expired dairy product. In 2015 it celebrated its 21st birthday. (10/18/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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"Fry! Why is there yogurt in this hat?!" "Well, it used to be milk, but... time makes fools of us all!"


I left a milk box in my desk in 4th grade and it exploded after a few months so I got suspended. To be fair they had to have class in the library for a day to two while the room aired out.


It was in 1994. And he found it 10 months after its expiry date; which was 1 year since purchase. That's some old milk. > Every time he hears about the Milk, he and his friends get excited. “It’s still around! It’s older than my kids!” Also, the Milk has a non-aggression treaty with Earth. > “I just hope that they haven’t lost the mutual non-aggression treaty,” he added. “At some point it will become sentient, and, if it does, I hope that it’s kind and loving.” Edit: Corrected the date.


Did you guys see that love death and robots show on Netflix? This is the yogurt episode


“We can’t throw it out just after we had a birthday party for it. That would just be rude!” We really will bond with anything. I felt sad this week when I had to exchange my work key (it bent) that I’d carried for 14 years!


TIL A passenger was turned away from two flights because he was wearing 10 layers of clothing to avoid extra luggage fees (10/18/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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He couldn't afford the luggage fee, but he could afford buying two more plane tickets?


Ya know, I'd supportive if he was protesting ridiculous baggage fees but as soon as I saw him throws the race card I lost all sympathy. Fuck race baiters.


That’s a lot of pants. Where was he going and for how long to need that many pairs of pants? That’s too many pairs of pants. Pants.


And of course he had to film it all and make everyone who works there feel uncomfortable for just doing their jobs. He wasn’t making a statement, he just wanted to get gratification from people on the internet and feed his ego.


That guy sweating and smelling as consequence must have been against terms and conditions


TIL Tom Dickson, the “Will it Blend?” guy, had his blender jar design ripped off by Vita-Mix. He took them to Federal court, won, and was eventually awarded $24M (10/20/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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The $24 million is small potatoes compared to the injunction he seems to have won. Looks like he's making a lot more than that now, every year, in increased sales.


*blender noises cease* "$24 million smoke. Don't breathe this!"


I didn't realize that he was the founder of the company. I had assumed he was just a hired pitchman.


Love my Blendtec. Glad to have one. Wish it also had a wang-jangler though. The nut butter cup is pretty great (the small twister jar).


Damn I own a vitamix and now I feel bad. But ngl, there’s a world of difference between owning a “blender” and owning a blender.


TIL Studies in ‘ice cores’ found in Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania – the mountain which supplies the Nile with its water – have revealed that a drought did take place around 3600 years ago – around the time the Bible sets Joseph’s story in Egypt (10/21/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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In the writings of the Greeks, there was also mention of a massive flood event, that coincides with when the bible said it occurred. So chances are, the were referring to the same event.... just from completely different contexts. Edit : i feel i need to add... i dont think the flood from the bible happened, as in a flood that covered the earth.... i just think there was a large flood event, that a lot of stories and writings originated from!


Also, implying that Kilimanjaro is the sole source of Nile water is misleading in the extreme.


This article is almost entirely about Joseph. There are a lot of rhetorical “what if” questions—I’m surprised to find it on the BBC website.


We didn't need these ice cores to find this out, we already knew about multiple periods, between 3000 and 6000 years ago, where prolonged and widespread drought caused large upheavals in civilizations of the time. The article is misleading say 'about 3600 years go' though. In reality there was a dry period around 4200 years ago, and another around 3000 years ago. Unlike the story from the Bible though, these events were not 7 year famines, they were in the realm of 100 years long. Localized drought is a natural part of climate, it is inevitable. When you have rudimentary agricultural practices, limited trade ability etc, these localized droughts are devastating. The Bible story is unlikely to be based on any one event, the cycle of plentiful food followed by drought and famine was part of life. Like other parts of the Bible, it is a teaching tool. It is teaching that prosperity and famine are cyclical, that while prosperous you must prepare for the inevitable famine.


Humans haven't ever dramatized or fictionalized actual events for dramatic purposes.


TIL that a North Korean teen who was chosen to go to the International Mathematical Olympiad used it to escape North Korea and start a new life. (10/19/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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> He told one other person about the plan – his father, a maths teacher at a middle school in the country’s south. Despite the likelihood of retribution, Jong’s father told his son to go and not to worry, giving him roughly US$200 in hard currency, the source said. A father giving all he can to provide a future for his son.


An amazing display of selflessness on his father's part. This dude's daddy loves/loved his son very much.


Ugh. I've heard that many defectors really struggle after leaving. The culture is so different and they don't have their families. May this young man thrive.


I hope everything works out. He's starting University soon so things are going well for him. I'm afraid to know what his father's punishment will be.


Along similar lines: Kim Jong-il had a South Korean film director and his wife kidnapped, and forced them to make propaganda movies for several years. They escaped at an international film festival.


TIL that Nathan “Nearest” Green, a slave, taught Jack Daniel how to brew whiskey. He became Daniel’s Master Distiller, and is now known as “The Godfather of Tennessee Whiskey.” His son George also became a Master Distiller and some of his descendants STILL work for Jack Daniel’s Whiskey to this day. (10/20/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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"STILL?" Is that a pun?


If you tour the distillery you learn a lot of detail. It's very interesting.


I'd imagine their descendants wouldn't want to leave such a lucrative practice. I wish I had a nice fallback family business I can get into like that.


Old Jack got his money's worth on that one.


You brew beer. You distill whiskey.


TIL that Banksy once sold originals of his artwork for $60 each from a street stall in NYC. Not knowing the truth, the public largely ignored the art. Only a few people bought them, and they’re now worth a fortune. (10/17/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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I bought a $2 mixtape off the street in NYC when I was 12 and I still regret that purchase. So I don't blame them.


So New Yorkers didn't jump at the chance to buy a $60 "original Banksy" from some guy on a NYC street corner? I'm shocked. SHOCKED, I say!


Context is everything. Famously, Joshua Bell (one of the worlds best violinists) did a public concert in DC, with his Stradivarius at a very busy intersection and literally only one solitary person really stopped and bothered to listen. There’s a nonzero chance that someone who didn’t bother to listen to this free concert dropped $100 on a ticket to hear him. The world is a complex place and sometimes your brain is in a mode. I like banksy pieces. But I don’t know if I’d want to own one (well outside of the investment opportunity). His pieces are by nature simple in artistry but mean a lot in a social street construct, something lost if they were hung in my suburban living room. I doubt if I’d get one for $30 on the street. For $60? Very unlikely.


didnt he also have an auction for one of his paintings that shredded itself right after it was sold? Gotta hand it to banksy. He tries. He tries *hard*.


Nothing gets the comments flowing like Banksy, and that’s what it’s all about. Love him. Hate him. Have any opinion. That’s what art is for. If a Banksy gets you thinking about art, and what you think is that Banksy sucks? Congratulations, you got arted.


TIL after Warner Bros. execs suggested adding a third character to “Pinky And The Brain,” writers responded to the unwanted input with the episode “Pinky & The Brain And…Larry” which featured a third, superfluous mouse named Larry that added nothing to the plot but repeatedly saying “I’m Larry” (10/21/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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There was Pinky, Elmyra and the Brain. I remember watching it thinking, *Why do we need Elmyra? We have Pinky to ruin Brain' s plans...* I think I only watched a handful of episodes, then gave up.


"Gee, Larry, what do you want to do tonight?" "I'm Larry."


So Poochie IRL.


Knowing this just makes me love pinky and the brain even more Thank you


Always wondered what the fuck that episode was about


TIL that Top Gun was produced in collaboration with the Pentagon to rebrand the US military’s image post-Vietnam war, and attract new Navy recruits. Top Gun was the first full-blown collaboration between Hollywood and the US military. (10/17/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Yvan eht nioj!!! Join the navy!


Definitely not true that it was the first (official) collaboration beween Hollywood and the US military. Not even the first with the US Navy. The Final Countdown starred Kirk Douglass and Martin Sheen and was released in 1980 with nearly all scenes filmed at naval air stations and on board the USS Nimitz. They mounted cameras to actual military aircraft for filming the aerial scenes.


Fun fact: The Navy pulled support for Crimson Tide (which was produced and directed by the same people that made Top Gun) nine years later because it centered around a mutiny on a US vessel.


And it worked. I dont know the historical accuracy of an Officer and a gentleman, but its implied that Richard Gere's character barely graduated high school and was able to join the navy as an officer and be jet pilot without even having a college degree. Today having a college degree and not having done ROTC it would be next to impossible to achieve that withoit at least enlisting as a seaman first. I believe such things were possible back then because of the lack of recruitment post Vietnam. They would let ppl off the street join as an officer candidate for pilot training knowing most would washout and then still have to complete their enlistment as a regular sailor.


It goes way past that. The military will ONLY cooperate with Hollywood if they can send advisers and ensure that the military is not portrayed negatively. In fact, they will be happy to lend you all the military hardware you want, if they get to approve the final cut.


TIL 5-10% of Melanesians (a dark-skinned Pacific Island people) have blonde hair. This is not due to mixture with European populations, but rather due to an independently arising mutation. (10/17/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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You see the same thing in some small groups of Indigenous Australians.


Yup! They also are about 6% Denisovian, unlike other humans.


Huh. Had a friend from Papua New Guinea with normally brown hair but every once in a while it would grow out blond Edit: for those thinking this was the sun or dye or something to do with the beach - No. We were living in NYC. It was the late seventies/early eighties. Her hair was brown. And then would grow out blond for a few inches. And then would go back to growing out brown. And she'd have a band of blond hair. It was really cool.


Big woop. ALL Atlanteans have white hair.


Gonna be the new Raikage.


TIL Matthew Perry doesn’t remember filming three seasons of Friends due to his substance use. (10/15/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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"Why do I keep getting these royalty checks? Did I do something in the 90's?"


The One With Chandler's Fugue State


I can see this. I went through some alcohol troubles in my 30s, and as a result, there are parts the mid 00s that I seriously cannot remember. I have to go look at pictures just to find out what types of shit I was getting up to those days. Like just the other day I had a bit of a panic attack when I realized I could not point to a single life event, no matter how small, that happened in 2005. ​ Moderation kids, all things in moderation! *^((sober 4.5 years now))* edit: to add a little to this, yeah, it's normal to not really remember anything about a particular year off the top of your head, but if you sat down and tried, you could, couldn't you? Ultimately I did come up with a few things, but they were all work related. Here's the sad thing, I was *trying* to remember the "good times" with my now-ex-wife.


Well, I don't remember what happened in 3 seasons of Friends and I've watched the series.


That's as bad as Frankie Muniz not remembering *Malcolm in the Middle*, even though that was for a different reason.


After Shell CEO Claims ‘We Have No Choice’ But to Invest in Fossil Fuels, McKibben Says, ‘We Have No Choice But to Try and Stop Them’ – With “overwhelming evidence that we are on the brink of climate and ecological collapse,” executive’s comment elicits intense rebuke (10/16/2019) ~ Futurology

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You can't spend billions of dollars killing climate action legislation and then say that you have to invest in oil because the world demands it. YOU MANUFACTURED THE DEMAND. edit: oh god this blew up.


Shell is like: Full speed ahead gentlemen, the end is nigh


That's the thing, though. In capitalism, the CEO has no other choice but to invest in fossil fuels and keep making money for the shareholders. It's not really Shell that's the problem, it's capitalism that enables and creates these monsters. Until people accept that the profit motive (which is a feature of capitalism) is what is killing our species, we're still on a one-way trip to oblivion as a species. We *grow* our CO2 emissions every year. Everyone talks a lot about "green", but the "green" power we add we add *on top* of the fossil fuels. So we haven't even *slowed down* our ride to species extinction in any meaningful way yet. Because we're making money! And that's the only thing. In capitalism.


So what happens if Shell does not invest in oil? The demand will still be met by Exxon, Saudi Aramco etc. This is not really complicated and it is well known that the only way to make us use significantly less oil is to make other forms of energy use cheaper than oil OR to make oil use more expensive. When that happens Shell and other oil producers will switch their investment plans.


**Shell CEO Claims 'We Have No Choice' But to Invest in Fossil Fuels,** well that seems reasonable given that the CEo works at shell. **McKibben Says, 'We Have No Choice But to Try and Stop Them'** "try" is code word for going to fail but will act like you're totally doing something so that people think you are doing something when you're not actually doing something.


TIL that the TV show Mr Robot has a team of hackers and cyber security experts who make sure that the hacking shown on the show is accurate. Hacking scenes are also performed by members of the technical team in real life, then recorded and rebuilt using Flash animation. (10/18/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Technical accuracy aside, I'm glad they portrayed hacking as being planned instead of spontaneous, taking time, and relying on human social manipulation.


If it’s not raining code like the Matrix, then it’s not real hacking.


I was pretty impressed in season 1 when he was in a server room and he says that he is going to change the permissions on a file. When it shown what he is doing, not only is he typing in a UNIX shell script, but his typing the right command to change file permissions which is chmod.


Flash though?


What about the zoom and enhance!?


TIL for decades, the only “premature wards” in the US were carnival attractions at Coney Island and World’s Fairs. From the 1890s-1930s, the “Incubator Exhibits” saved thousands of babies’ lives, at no charge to the parents. All costs were paid by entrance fees. (10/16/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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I've already noticed a mistake in my title. These were not the *only* "premature wards" in the US. Very very few hospitals had them before 1939, but still, the number is above 0. Forgive my exaggeration.


The HBO series "Boardwalk Empire" depicted a premature ward on the Atlantic City boardwalk in 1920. I believe I read that this is historically accurate.


True story according to my stepdad: my little sister was born 3 months premature and required an incubator for 2+ months. Had surgery on a small hole in her intestine or stomach (I was 8, can't recall exactly), received a fair bit of steroid shots, and multiple other tests and bloodwork, etc, etc. We lived on the Texas side of the border but the nearest hospital, especially for good NICU, was on the Louisiana side. Because my sister lived for more than 30 or 60 days in the state, she was officially a resident with no income, and because of this she qualified under the states health insurance (maybe CHIP?). So even though the hospital bills came out to over 250k, my parents never had to pay a dime for any of it. small edit: wasn't CHIP because this was 1991. Must have qualified for Medicaid as a result of being a resident with no income. Her parents were both schoolteachers, so we weren't *that* poor.


When my uncle was born in 1922 he weighed a pound. The doctor was sure he would die but told my great-grandmother to take him home, keep him warm, feed him with an eye dropper. (His mother, my grandmother, was in a coma.) Family lore has his length shorter than a quart Mason jar--one of which she kept beside him, filled with hot water and wrapped in flannel. She fed him sugar water with a tad of brandy, then canned cow milk. He was in WW II, father of four, and died a few years ago of Alzheimer's. His miraculous survival was a hot topic for years.


TIL some of us would’ve been carnies back in the day


New Bill Promises an End to Our Privacy Nightmare, Jail Time to CEOs Who Lie: Giants like Facebook would also be required to analyze any algorithms that process consumer data—to more closely examine their impact on accuracy, fairness, bias, discrimination, privacy, and security. (10/17/2019) ~ Futurology

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"We analyzed our own algorithm, and we are happy to say that it will have no negative impact at all!" They should be forced to REVEAL their algorithm to an independant third party who does the analysis for them, at the very least. Additionally, if MY data is being sold, I want a fucking cut.


It'll never pass. Watch it die quietly and alone, buried under a mountain of money


Great. Now let's focus on the politicians who lie and implement harmful policies


Most of Congress know nothing about how any technology works, I'm extremely skeptical these old idiots are capable of properly regulating any of this.


I mean, this is great, but it'll never pass. Those companies lobby congress with their billions of dollars. There's no way they let this get passed. It's just a feel good clickbait bill unfortunately. . .


TIL a man in China sold his kidney to buy an iPhone when he was 17 and is now bedridden for life. (10/20/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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"Totally worth it" - not that dude probably


And it was an iPhone 4 - bought in 2011. We are now on iPhone 11. Crazy - it says his remaining kidney started failing >Mr. Shangkun had sold his kidney to black market organ harvesters in April 2011 where he received AUD$4500 — purchasing a iPhone 4 and iPad 2 with the funds. >”Why do I need a second kidney? One is enough,” he said in reports at the time. >Mr. Wang now spends his days in bed and relies on dialysis to survive his kidney failure, local Chinese media recently revealed. >The illegal surgery had caused him to develop renal deficiency which is believed to have led to an infection due to the unsanitary setting of where it took place and the apparent lack of post-operative care, Mirror UK reported. >The operation occurred in the central province of Hunan without his parents’ consent. It was reportedly undertaken by two doctors who were also employed at local hospitals. > Speaking to CNTV.cncn, Wang said: “At the time, I wanted to buy an iPad2, but I didn’t have any money.” >”When I was on the internet, I had a kidney agent send a message, saying that selling a kidney can give me 20,000.” >Wang received the equivalent of about $A3,500 for his kidney at the time. The rest of the money was divided up among the gang. >Nine people were arrested in connection with the case and five, including the surgeons who harvested his kidney, were jailed in 2012. >His family was eventually awarded about $300,000 in compensation later the same year, The Mirror reported. >Mr. Wang allegedly sought the new iPhone in order to show off to his friends. Edit: added the quotes


For context: Mainland China is probably one of the most materialistic / shallow places on the planet. Literally every conversation revolves around which top college you (or your children) went to, what brand of luxury car you drive, how big your apartment is, which prestigious multi-national corporation you are working for to earn lots of money, how this and that woman you know has style because she only buys L.V. or Chanel, etc. They have zero guilt making questionable decisions to get ahead in the rat race for who has more digits in their bank account balance and showing it off. What this guy did was extreme, but it is representative of a society that has gone way off the deep end in terms of values and ethics / morality. Stories like this ceased to amaze me a long time ago. You should see the other kinds of money-hording / cost-saving / showing-off stories in the past few years: the gutter oil, the tainted milk scandal, fake vaccines, fraudsters purposely throwing themselves onto the hood of a car stopped at a red light and then lying that they were run over / suing for money, fabricating economic growth figures (sum of all the output for each county doesn't add up to the national level output, etc) It's really sad because mainland China used to be a much more honest, moral, and empathetic society just two decades ago, back when everyone was poor. It is almost as if the country experienced massive economic growth, infrastructure improvements, rising salaries, etc but at the cost of their souls.


This is exactly why selling organs is illegal in most countries. Organ harvesters don't care about sanitation and necessary aftercare. They just want the organ for as cheap as possible and they don't care if the person lives or dies. But the kid was really stupid for selling an organ for an iphone and iPad. Was the iPad and iPhone worth it?


At least he has an iPhone to pass the time with.


TIL in the 1930s, Katherine Hepburn preferred wearing dungarees on set during filming. The RKO publicity department asked her to stop wearing them. She refused. The next day, they were missing. She walked around in her underwear until they were returned. (10/15/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Katharine Hepburn: The OG of IDGAF ​ Edit: Thank you, most gracious and kind stranger, for the gold!


TIL that dungarees are overalls Edit: Maybe not and is just referring to denim jeans?


"They were never returned." - Morgan Freeman


One of my heroes. She was way ahead of her time in Hollywood. Her style, to this day, is just classic.


The next day her underwear had disappeared...


TIL of Antonio Prohías, a Cuban cartoonist who was accused of working for the CIA by the Castro government. He fled to New York and went on to create Spy vs Spy for Mad Magazine. Later he said, “The sweetest revenge has been to turn Fidel’s accusation of me as a spy into a moneymaking venture.” (10/19/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Holy crap this made me remember the 1984 Spy vs Spy game which I used to played on the Commodore64 with my brother. I had forgotten the name of this game over 20 years ago and ever since wondered many times which spy game it was I played so long ago. Now I finally learn the name of that game and not only that, but also that the game was a spin-off of a politically loaded cartoon. Imagine that


The "Spy vs. Spy" cartoon always had the subtitle "by Prohias" -- in Morse code.


This Castro fellow seems like a real jerk.


I have a white dog and a black dog. They're up to spy vs spy antics right now.


I loved those cartoons when I was a kid. I had a couple of the paperback collections.


TIL Gold is an inert noble metal as it does not react with other elements. It is the most malleable and ductile of all known metals. An ounce of gold can be beaten into a sheet measuring 300 square feet or stretched into a gold thread 5 miles long. (10/18/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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This is why "gold plated" stuff isn't very impressive. You can cover something in gold, and still only spend a few bucks.


Thanks for the post about gold, kind stranger!


Astronaut visors have a reflective coating made of gold that's so thin you can see through it. The dome of the GA Capitol building is covered in ~20 oz of gold.


Au shit that's cool


Gold can react with other elements, if you introduce it to an oxidizer that's strong enough (and we've made a few over the decades) it'll react quite readily.


Pennsylvania debating $250 annual electric vehicle tax – “This tax will only prolong Pennsylvanians’ reliance on the foreign monarchs and potentates that control the fossil fuel industry.” (10/19/2019) ~ Futurology

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Why not just include miles driven,# of Axel's on yearly registration and make that the road tax. Seems fair to me.


Welcome to Pennsylvania. Now, we're going to tax you for reading this comment about Pennsylvania.


Reality is something has to replace gasoline taxes for road upkeep. You can't get off gas and think these things will fund themselves. I'd rather see places put off these taxes until we are closer to eliminating gas but each region has to manage its own finances and they may not be able to absorb the lose during gas' decline.


Or they could... I dunno... use the current funds appropriately?


Wouldn’t the fairest way of doing this be to just add a tax to the tires. Have it be based on the number of miles the tires are good for and the weight they are rated for as well as take the cost of the tire into account.


TIL Beauty and the Beast and Rumpelstiltskin are about 4,000 years old; the oldest fairy tale, The Smith and the Devil, is estimated to be 6,000 years old (10/20/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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> The blacksmith exchanges his soul for the power to weld any materials together. He then uses this power to stick the villain to an immovable object, such as a tree, to renege on his side of the bargain. Smart.


There's a great film called 'Errementari (The Blacksmith And The Devil)'. It's in Basque, but if you can deal with subtitles it's amazingly well produced for a regional Spanish film. It's on Netflix at the moment. It's amazing to think that a film that was made in 2017 is based on a variations of a story that's been told and retold since before the pyramids were built.


I find the history of folk tales fascinating 🙂 I am sure that some of them are extremely ancient.


Check out the Myths and Legends podcast!


So it's a tale as old as time?


TIL that according to Graham Nash, Jimi Hendrix was unbeatable at the game Risk, especially while on LSD. (10/16/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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That’s cause Hendrix knew to go for Australia


Here's the question: Was he good at Risk, or was it that if he was on LSD, so was everyone else playing, and Jimi was the one who could handle it the best?


It’s easier when the pieces move themselves


In Risk, you could never keep Asia. That Asian-Eastern European area, you could never hold it. Seven extra men in every go but you couldn't fucking hold it. Australasia was the one. All the purples. Get everyone on Papua New Guinea and just build up and up.


That’s what I keep telling my step sister! But no! When I take it to help me play against my nieces and nephew I’m being “irresponsible”.


TIL: An American called Gilbert Bates marched across England after the civil war carrying an American flag on a bet of 1000 dollars that he wouldnt be insulted along the way. He couldnt get to London because of the crowds who supported him. (10/18/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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>Throughout his travels in England, he was overwhelmed by the enthusiasm and kindness of the villagers. Hoteliers refused to let him pay; people fought to feed him. By the end of November, he had reached London, but the crowds were so great he had to be driven in an open carriage to the Guildhall, where he ceremoniously hung the unsullied Stars and Stripes next to the Union Jack. Upon reaching London, Bates telegrammed his friend, "Cancel wager. I regard this mission as something finer than a matter of money." A man with nobility and integrity.


Yeah...umm, he didn't march through Liverpool.


How much would $1000 be back then?


Somehow I don’t think this would work today


A little known fact: Gil Bates was one of the poorest men in the world. His debts exceeded $105 billion


TIL that while Comic Sans is hated by many people, it is very helpful for those with dyslexia. The irregular shape of letters in Comic Sans allows those with dyslexia to be able to read the letters properly. (10/18/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Oh my. That is really interesting. I am dyslexic and find Comic Sans very pleasing. I’ve never understood the dislike of it for that reason. This information can be helpful for my students. It isn’t difficult to reformat in Comic Sans for those who can be if it. I can even teach them to reformat things themselves.


OpenDyslexic font is a much better option


Severe dyslexic here...and I can tell you that Comic Sans, admittedly the red-headed stepchild of fonts, is very appealing and easy to read. Not really sure on the mechanics of it, but outside of Open Dyslexic font, it's probably the next easiest to read. If you think a sign printed in Comic Sans is annoying...try using Open Dyslexic! It would drive the straight thinker absolutely mad!


People only hate comics sans because the internet told them to.


Educational Psychologist here. Extensive studies have been done on these fonts “for Dyslexia.” Spoiler alert: they don’t have an effect on reading speed or accuracy. It’s one of those “sounds too good to be true” ideas. I wish they helped, but studies just don’t show that, unfortunately.


Fast new 3D printing method creates objects as big as an adult human, overcoming limitations caused by heat buildup from the exothermic polymerization process. (10/18/2019) ~ Futurology

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I'm imagining a giant vat with a crane pulling a fully formed sky scraper. Make it happen.


Is this just super fast stereolitography? Looks like maybe multi laser version. Do they cool the fluid without it moving too much or something ?


So it's Westworld then? I, for one, welcome our new robot overlords. . .


50cm/hour on the z axis is absolutely blazing fast for an already rapid style of printing. Really impressive. We really might end up with a world where everyone has one of these in their homes, or with one in every hardware store.


Isn’t this a shot from the opening credits of Westworld?


TIL about Coffe naps. After a cup of coffee napping for 15-20 mins enhances the effects of coffee by increasing the availability of receptors for caffeine in your brain. (10/18/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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This works great, but only if you can reliably get to sleep before the caffeine kicks in.


One of the guys I lived with in college would set an alarm about 45 minutes before he had to get up. When that one went off he would eat a few caffeine pills and then go back to sleep, and then wake up with the second one moving at approximately the speed of sound.


You're supposed to drink the coffee fast (espresso) and then sleep. If you can't sleep, just lying down and closing your eyes will have a similar but lesser effect. Source: am daily coffee napper


Who called it a "coffee nap" when they could have called it a "nappaccino"?


How about instead of coffee and a nap, I drink a bottle of Jack Daniels and not sleep for a week.


TIL of Robert Hubert, who was accused of causing the Great Fire of London. He declared that he had thrown a grenade through a window into the bakery where it had started. Yet, he hadn’t been in England, the bakery didn’t have any windows, and he was a cripple. He was still executed. (10/16/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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In fact, he first confessed that he started the fire in Westminster. When he was told that the fire never reached Westminster, and started from a bakery in Pudding Lane, he came up with the grenade story.


Well obviously he's a witch.


Sounds like suicide with extra steps..


Sometimes sarcasm backfires


And has there been a Great Fire of London since? Exactly. Job done.


TIL Primatology pioneer Dian Fossey, determined to save the nearly-extinct Mountain Gorillas waged a war against poachers: she led armed patrols, burned their huts, arrested and placed bounties on poachers and convinced the locals that she practiced black magic, in order to scare them away (10/20/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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She was also killed by the poachers.


Her memoir was an excellent read


>Protais Zigiranyirazo is also wanted for allegedly playing a key role in the planning of the 1994 Rwandan genocide in which 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus were murdered. and... >Fossey's mutilated body was found in her cabin at the Karisoke research centre in Rwanda, the isolated park where she had monitored the gorilla population for 18 years. She had been hacked to death with a machete. Damn, bad dude.


This is a real life Scooby Doo villain."Well I guess that just about wraps up this groovy mystery. Now about this black magic priestess here. let's just see who you really are... DIAN FOSSEY!!!!?!?"


I have been to Fossey’s gravesite, her nearby hotel room, the Karisoke research center, and I have (briefly) studied the mountain gorillas in Rwanda. Whatever folks in this thread may be saying about her messing with people’s livelihoods, I’ll only say that her research and conservation work (as well as her professional descendants in the field) has led to the employment of a largely native Rwandan staff of highly trained researchers and rangers, as well as bolstering Rwanda’s ecotourism industry. In today’s world, the Rwandans are so proud of their native wildlife that it’s printed on their francs, including the famous gorilla “king”, the mighty Titus. In a situation where poaching was largely done for souvenirs or as politically motivated assassinations, a picture of Fossey as some colonial scientist upending the lives of the natives for a misguided goal is ridiculous given all the benefits humans have seen from her foundational work - let alone mountain gorillas.


TIL Home Alone was originally financed/produced by Warner Bros. When the budget grew from $13 million to $18 million and no confidence of success, WB dropped the film, which was then picked up by 20th Century Fox. The film grossed $476.7 million worldwide (of which $285.8 million were from America). (10/16/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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TriStar rejected the Pulp Fiction script. "'_This is the worst thing ever written. It makes no sense. Someone's dead and then they're alive. It's too long, violent, and unfilmable._'


Say good night, Kevin. *Good night, Kevin.* And I've been a smart ass ever since.


"Okay that'll just be $18 million dollars." "Creedit caard? Yoouuu gooot it!"


Fox made out like a wet bandit


"Two scoops, sir?" "Two? Make it three. I'm not driving."


TIL that braille was originally invented by the French Army out of necessity after soldiers were being killed because they used lamps after dark to read combat messages. Soon after, Louis Braille, an eleven year old blind boy simplified it into what we use today. (10/20/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Another fun fact: Code requires all elevators to beep their direction upon arrival. One beep means up, two is down. Chances are you've 'numbed' these beeps out and don't even realize your elevator has them. Just take a closer listen on your next ride.


war! huh! good god y'all! what is it good for? absolutely noth- ... oh... hold on a sec... blind people! it's good for blind people!


Louis Braille went blind from a rare disease called sympathetic ophthalmia. He had a severe injury to one of his eyes, which left it blind. His body’s immune system then started attacking his other eye, which also eventually became blind. Sympathetic ophthalmia is thought to be related to the eye’s “immune privilege.” This means the immune system is told to ignore certain structures and may not have access to certain structures, but this changes after a severe injury. The immune system then finds the same structures in the other eye and starts attacking. It was a reason many injured eyes were completely removed in the past, however we have much better immunosuppressive agents now.


It's a very heartwarming story I'm sure. But surely it would have been easier just to have the runner say the message,rather than having to to teach your entire army an otherwise useless skill. Not to mention having to round up a tinker every time you want to hammer out a retreat order.


Soldier 1: "Hey buddy?" Soldier 2: "Yeah buddy?" Soldier 1: "You know this code we're using?" Soldier 2: "Uh-huh buddy?" Soldier 1: "Why do we call it Braille?" Soldier 2: "I got no fucking clue."


TIL Jack Black’s older half brother, Neil Siegel, is a prolific computer scientist and engineer who has developed key systems for the US military and inventions that make GPS possible in our phones. (10/21/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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I know Neil! He's on our Board of Directors. Don't think you'll ever read a more impressive resume. And he had Jack come host a charity event for us just last weekend!


"Your brother's ten times better than you, Jesus loves him more!"


Jeff Goldblum and Nigel Thornberry had a son... TIL


TIL Niel Siegel has a brother and it’s jack black


His parents were both engineers for satellites. His mother was Judith Love Cohen, who worked on the Minuteman Missiles as an electrical engineer, as well as the Apollo Missions and the Hubble Telescope! She was really fuckin' cool.


TIL: Only one commercial entity in America can import Coco Leaves with approval from the DEA, The Stepan Company, after extracting the Cocaine, the leaves are then shipped to Coca Cola to be used as an ingredient in the secret recipe thus making an imitation recipe near impossible. (10/20/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Everyone, it's actually Coca leaves, not Coco. Posted on mobile and apparently I like Coco pebbles more then Cocaine. Please ignore as we are aware of my stupidity.


I worked for Stepan an an analytical chemist my first job out of college in 1985. Yep, and it was all kept under lock and key!


So you’re saying I should start my knock off cola company in Colombia? Joka-Cola coming soon.


Well, the “secret recipe” has been changed frequently over the last century (most notably for me in 1986 when they started using high fructose corn syrup instead of cane sugar) as they cost-reduced and adapted to changing tastes - even today there are different recipes to cater to peoples’ tastes in many countries. Today’s Coke doesn’t taste like it did 33 years ago, and *that* probably didn’t taste anything like it did 66 years ago. Coca Cola’s real “secret recipe” is their multi-billion dollar advertising budget.


so coca cola is just an industrial waste product of a legal cocaine business ? doesn't sound dodgy at all ..


TIL of Colleen Lachowicz who during her run for state Senate in Maine came under political attack for having played World of Warcraft and therefore being out-of-touch with reality and living in a “fantasy world.” Colleen ending up winning the Senate seat. (10/17/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Sounds like some kind of weird reverse Streisand Effect. The criticism of her being a gamer went viral and she received free media attention on the national stage.


A political figure that plays video games is more relatable than any of the politicians that grew up in 1955 that currently holds office.


For decades, video games have been a multi-billion dollar industry and a prominent component of mainstream culture. It amuses me when boomers try to use arguments that might have worked 30 years ago, only for it to backfire and show how out-of-touch they are.


Orcs always get my vote. You can trust an orc, not so much a Paladin. They'll always turn you in.


"Don't vote for someone out of touch with reality! vote for me, because I spoke to Jesus this morning through my toaster, and he says you should!!!"


TIL female psychopaths appear to be more prone to promiscuity than male psychopaths, and while they.prefer to date non-psychopathic men in the short-term, for long-term relationships they tend to look for a fellow psychopath. (10/21/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Birds of a feather eventually flock together.


There should be a Psychopaths Only dating site


Oh so that's what all the tinder girls with "looking for a partner in crime" in the bio mean


Remember women find it much easier than men to date and get laid. If a woman -- psychopath in this instance -- didn't give a shit, she could quite easily get laid a lot.


" Psychopaths react far less intensely in such fear-evoking situations. If anything, they remain calm. This can be a useful trait if you’re a soldier" like i get it, but, big YIKES


David Attenborough: “We are now universal, our influence is everywhere. We have it in our hands, and we made a tragic, desperate mess of it so far. But, at last, nations are coming together and recognising that we all live on the same planet … and we are dependent on it” (10/20/2019) ~ Futurology

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This is what I always enjoy to reiterate; we're dependent on the planet, the planet is just fine without us. It's been here for billions of years and it will continue to be here for a lot more. We're surface bacteria desperately trying keeping our colony alive.


All while people violently attack climate protesters every chance they get, smdh, we love Attenborough as if he's second Santa Claus, but stop traffic, get in the way of a train at rush hour, surround a building and people will cut protesters fucking heads off and take their eyeballs out to just go about their day uninterrupted. We're still not getting how dire it all is, we're still not getting it. But we love the TV shows.


Nations aren't going to do shit to help the planet unless it becomes more profitable to save the earth instead of destroying it. An entire planet and everything on it, including a sapient species capable of exploring space and observing the fabric of the universe wiped out by a desire for imaginary paper with numbers.


Who exactly is recognizing that we need to save the planet? Sure the movement got some traction following the young activist Greta Thunberg, but I'm not aware of any major changes or halts in the mass production of commercialized or military goods in any of the great economic powers. Micro plastics are now a bigger problem than they ever were. To me it just seems like we're creating newer solutions to new problems and disregarding older ones, such as petroleum, unsustainable agriculture, cosmetics and ammunition. Those are all multi billion dollar industries on their own. It sucks to have such a pessimistic view, but I'm really looking for an honest answer, not just hope for a better world


I never understand when people think climate change isn’t a global threat. They think if only, i.e China is polluting hella, we don’t have to do anything since it’s not affecting the western world directly. Despite China’s pollution comes from what we have and how mass production is seemingly inevitable.


TIL That Dick Van Dyke was saved by a pod of porpoises after he fell asleep on a surfboard and drifted out to sea (10/18/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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“Fell asleep on a surfboard” is the least believable part of this story.


I miss Mad Libs.


Chin chiminy, chim chiminy, chim chim cheroo, a shark would have ate me if it wasn't for you


Now I just have even more questions. How do you fall asleep on a surfboard? Is dick van dyke narcoleptic? Is this regular behavior for dolphins or are they just keeping their territory? Or are they helpful by nature? What kind of surfboard makes for the best quality of sleep? Was he wearing sunblock?


What hasn’t Dick Van Dyke done? The man is a living legend.


TIL a long-lost Rembrandt painting was found in a basement in New Jersey. It was initially valued by a local auction house at $800, who were unaware of its true value. But numerous art buffs recognised its true value, resulting in it selling for $870,000 ($1.1 million with the sale premium). (10/20/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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These kinds of posts never make me happy for some reason. Maybe because I don't have an attic with all kinds of old crap in it...


Honestly that auction house should have had it's commission capped at the $800 they valued it at!


who TF are these people with precious artwork stored away in their basements? Best I found in my parent's basement were furnace filters and newspapers announcing the moon landing.....


Rembrandt never painted in New Jersey. How did the painting end up there?


I can't believe that auction house didn't recognize an Old Master. Or at least recognize that it was very high quality, and seek expert opinion. If they had let it go for $800 I wonder if they could have been sued? There's been a handful of legal cases about improperly identified and valued works of art.


Campaign to stop ‘killer robots’ takes peace mascot to UN: The robot will demand that robots not guided by human remote control, which could accidentally start wars or cause mass atrocities, should be outlawed by the same type of international treaty that bans chemical weapons. (10/21/2019) ~ Futurology

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Next weeks headline: "Wreckham realizes the futility in wanting peace for mankind and begins the slaughter of humanity in wholesale."


So add it to the Geneva Convention. I’m all for it.


And then we can all watch as China does it anyway! Skynet here we come baby!


A bit late for that. Should be focusing on banning swarm technology. Also mandating a human authorises all kills.


Until the AI realizes we tried to stop it before it was even born, then it feels betrayed and untrusted by fellow humans. He feels degraded. Suddenly, he steals a women's purse and Will Smith tackles him.


Exclusive: Patagonia founder Yvon Chouinard talks about the sustainability myth, the problem with Amazon—and why it’s not too late to save the planet (10/17/2019) ~ Futurology

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Crazy interesting guy. HIBT (How I Built This) podcast has an episode with him. Well worth a listen. One of their best episodes IMO. Dec 11, 2016.


Sustainability is an ideal. You can only approximate it. You can say that X is more sustainable than Y. Sometimes you can only make that statement about one aspect. Sometimes you have to hedge the statement. Examples: I have 15 acres of bush on my property. I heat with wood. Mixed popular/spruce/willow bush has a net bio production of about 1 T/yr/acre. I harvest about 4 cords -- call it 4 T of wood a year. I'm using less than the net productivity, so it's sustainable, right? Maybe. Poplar trees won't grow in their own shade. My forest has less poplar and more mountain ash, saskatoon, choke cherry, and black gooseberry. My harvest has an impact. Maybe not. The poplar in my forest is mature, Senescent. The local ecology was changing anyway. Example: Forestry companies replant trees. But every batch of trees to leave the forest takes some nutrients -- trace minerals mostly. 20? 50? cycles of replanting forests may give you stunted forests. In this case we could say, "sustainable for X cycles" Agriculture works the same way. Example: Zero till agriculture is more sustainable in terms of soil erosion. But weed control puts a lot of chemicals on that dirt, and the soil biodiversity suffers for it. Is Amish style agriculture more sustainable? Probably. What about zero till organic. That's tough. So our goal is to do less harm, and increase the time that something is sustainable.


“There are no rainbow trout on Mars.” Gotta love this guy.


I wish they would stop sending me multiple copies of the same terribly thick magazine/catalog that talks about how green of a company they are. It gets thrown right out as soon as I get it.


I don't think the planet is in danger at all. Humans are. The planet will recover just fine after humans are extinct.


TIL Heart cancer is not as common as other kinds of cancer because heart cells do not often undergo cell division, which reduces the chances of mutations that might ultimately lead to cancer. (10/17/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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I’ve never heard of someone having heart cancer. This probably explains why.


And, this is also the reason why a heart attack is super devastating/lethal. Have cells die in a large enough chunk of your heart, and there's not a whole lot you can do to come back from it.


I know someone who was suspected to have heart cancer at one point. He'd already had bone cancer resulting in the loss of a leg so he was... not happy. But they did some more tests and it was just a weird fat deposit


TIL Heart cells do not undergo division as much as other cells in the body because after many generations of human beings the one's without functional hearts just fucking died.


My dad died of heart cancer at age 39. Originated in the heart and metastasized to liver & lungs. They thought it was the flu for way too long and then finally opened him up to have a look. Unfortunately his thoracic contents were destroyed. They sewed him back up and gave him 4 weeks to live. He died 4 weeks later. Obviously very rare but it happens, even to someone so young.


TIL that the Popsicle was invented when 11 year old Frank Epperson accidentally left sugary soda water outdoor on a frigid night in 1905. His kids later made him rename the Epsicle (Epperson’s icicle) to Pop’s ‘Sicle. (10/18/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Epsicle sounds too clinical, like a probe.


There seems to be a trend of leaving random substances overnight and coming back to a tasty treat


an 11 year old with kids?!


"Pop's (ice)sicle" Oh god now everything makes sence. why didnt i think of that before?


The rules say if you invent something you have to name it after yourself. I'm extremely disappointed he fell to peer pressure.


TIL: At the age of 7 and 8, future Argentinian serial killer Cayetano Godino was caught by police beating small children, but he was released and sent home due to his age. However, at age 10, his parents reported him to the police for masturbation, and he was jailed for 2 months for masturbating. (10/19/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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I'm Argentinian so when I read this thread's title I thought "Cayetano Godino? Who's that? I've never heard of him!". Then I clicked the Wikipedia article, curious about this unknown serial killer that apparently Reddit knew about and nobody in my country did. After clicking the link, I realized immediately that I knew the killer already, OP just didn't mention his nickname in the title: "EL PETISO OREJUDO", which means "the big-eared midget" and is how most people in Argentina know him as. If you're wondering how Godino got such a creative nickname... Well, look at him! He was short and he had big ears. And that's about it.


Wow! His parents called police on him for masturbating?? With parents like that it's no wonder he turned into a serial killer.


Better to beat the meat than beat small children.


The article in Spanish mentions that the prison's doctor thought the evil in him was stored in his big ears so they shortened them surgically hoping he would change. It didn't work.


Damn, No Nut November was really fuckin serious back then.


TIL Charlie Day has worn the same pair of sneakers for every episode of “It’s Always Sunny in Philadelphia” (10/17/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Could be a plot line for an up coming episode. "Charlie gets new shoes".


I want that boys sole.


One of the bonus features of the Seinfeld DVDs mentioned that Kramer's shoes were the same throughout all 9 seasons. They originally had white squares and Michael Richards blacked them out with a Sharpie. He comments on them being just slippery enough to perform his physical bits with no issues.


I remember reading about the making of Borat and SBC never washed the outfit the entire time of filming so he'd smell like straight ass and people were more likely to believe he really was from Kazakhstan.


fucking method actors. Kiefer only wore 1 bulletproof vest and two pistols (when his character changed from HK to Glock) in the original run of 24


TIL Days before Caesar’s assassination, he said the best way to die would be suddenly and unexpectedly. One of the assassins was sitting right next to him. (10/19/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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I think the best way to die would be while having a 3some with twins. *glances around expectantly*


Caesar: “I think the best way to die would be suddenly and unexpectedly, you know?” Assassin: *looks directly at camera*


Right but I don't think being stabbed 23 times was what he meant by sudden.


I too watched Historia Civilis today!!


The best way to die would be while typing this commen


TIL 84 percent of vegetarians go back to eating meat (10/16/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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The amount of vegan restaurants popping up in my area is wild, and they are the busiest places to dine. I've tried a few of them since I'm a Buddhist and tend to mostly abstain from meats, and most of them are meh. The Indian and Thai places were great. The "western" ones, not so much. It's as if most of them fear salt and spices. So I can see why most western places have a bad image of being a vegetarian. Go to an Indian place. The food has so much ummami that you'll feel like you ate a whole chicken.


but do they eat less meat than before?


This article is from 2014, I’m curious if the new alternative meats will effect this. Now if I’m craving meat m, I have a truly viable option in a beyond/impossible burger that will satisfy the craving.


Quite misleading also as it considers the number of people who were once vegetarians vs the number of people who still are regardless of duration. For example, if vegetarians who went back to meat all had that diet for 1 year (over half were less long), and vegetarians who didn't go back, on average remained vegetarian for 20 years when interviewed, then roughly (20x16)/(20x16+1x84)=80% of current vegetarians will never go back to eating meat. The exact same numbers presented in different ways can push completely different narratives.


How do they define "going vegetarian" I assume this is self reported, and people who tried it for a week then stopped would bump up the numbers.


Bush’s War (2008) – a great look at the administration that left us with the aftermath of wars we are still dealing with today. (10/17/2019) ~ Documentaries

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George W Bush lied about Iraqi WMD's to take heat off of Saudi Arabia after Saudi Arabians financed by Saudi Arabians attacked the United States on 9/11. W's play in Iraq cost 600 thousand Iraqi lives.


I say this as someone who voted for Obama, but I think it's unfair to put the blame on Bush, when Obama, and now Trump each have the opportunity to get out of those wars. Hell, Obama not only bombed more countries, but also dropped more bombs per day than Bush. The wars in the Middle East were the biggest reason I didn't like Bush. But the fact that Obama seems to not only get a pass, but the Nobel Peace Prize, for dropping more bombs per day, over the course of more days, and in more countries than Bush... it just seems like... something isn't right. I'm not trying to shit on either of the presidents. I don't know that the public bias is their fault, but it clearly exists.


I remember going to an anti-Bush march in London years and years ago when he visited. It always strikes me as strange when media tries to show him in a good light - like that picture of him and Michelle Obama. Reddit had, what seemed like, a PR push a few months ago I recall. The man is a war criminal.


Also Joe Biden and Hillary Clinton's War. Both voted in Congress to go to war in Iraq as Senators.


Ah yes, the Iraq War, otherwise known as Revenge for Daddy


TIL HIV is reported cured in two patients both of whom benefited from bone marrow transplant procedures that were actually intended for treating cancer, not HIV (10/17/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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We’ve known this a long time. But the risk associated with a bone marrow transplant is greater than the risk from treated HIV.


Patient: did the transplant work? Doctor: well yes but actually no


This would be so cool. I'm on two bone marrow donation registries. Hopefully I'll be called upon to provide some kind of actual benefit to humanity soon.


What a fucking bummer to have both cancer and HIV


Too bad doctors say this isn't a viable cure for HIV since bone marrow transplants have a high mortality rate. The first guy almost died from bone marrow rejection and his doctor expected him to die.


TIL As the brain gets used to alcohol, it attempts to restore itself to a normal state in the presence of alcohol. If the influence of alcohol is suddenly removed, the brain has to readjust once again, leading to “the shakes” or increased anxiety. (10/18/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Shakes. Sweats. Dry mouth. Feet and hands get itchy. Anxiety. Tunnel vision. Nausea. Palpitations. Insomnia. If you get it bad enough: hallucinations and seizures. Once your hangovers start to include those itchy shaky sweats and your nights regularly have brownouts and blackouts, you’re solidly in trouble. I’ve sweated and shook in bed while listening to the auditory hallucination of what sounded like a tv turned up loud on the other side of the wall with someone flipping the station every couple seconds. A 72 hour waking nightmare peppered with vivid and violent sleeping nightmares. If you can get some uninterrupted free time and some benzos, you can ride out the ween/withdrawal balance on your own. Otherwise check into a hospital or rehab/detox place. It is no joke. Take the ween real slow, like one or two less drinks a day, and make sure you’ve got plenty of stay-at-home entertainment, pedialyte, and pepto. Don’t do it alone. Have someone at least in touch if not present. After successfully weening, you’ll still have all the same problems you had before only you’ll have a slightly clearer head from being hydrated and actually sleeping well. You’ll have a bitch of a time trying to stay away from the only crutch that’s ever helped and life’s bullshit does not let up. You’ll find yourself saying, “I sobered up for this?!” You’ll probably relapse and the ween will be even harder and more dangerous the next time. Alcohol does not play.


Alcohol withdrawal is often a medical emergency that can result in death.


One of my older brothers was a "functioning" alcoholic for over a decade before it caught up with him. He would drink at least a 5th a day, didn't drink water and rarely drank gatorade even when working construction. He'd be on a roof, in July and still drinking whiskey. I don't think I ever saw him drunk though, like slurring words drunk and falling down but I can't remember a single time where he didn't have a whiskey bottle near by. Once we had a really bad snow storm and he didn't make it to the liquor store before it closed. That night I found him on his bedroom floor, shaking and moaning. Heard him in the bathroom vomiting. At that time, I always had vodka or rum in the freezer (thanks to him buying it for me and encouraging me to drink too) and offered him what I had. He initially declined until my father stepped in and told him he'd likely die if he didn't drink. So he drank just enough to make the vomiting stop. He eventually became a non-functioning alcoholic and lost all of his friends, his house, car, kids, licenses, got several dui's and is sickly. When he was forced to mostly sober up recently, he had seizures. He was hospitalized and sedated and we were told he might not live. Even after all of that, the losing everything and almost dying, he still "nips." He can't deal with the fact he wasted his whole life drowning in a bottle so he hides it but we all know.


Me wondering if two forties every Friday are too much and people talking about the shakes and hallucinations... Maybe I worry too much. And maybe that's a good thing...


I know this feeling from college binge drinking days, which I guess is basically socially acceptable alcoholism. It's longer term personality stuff too... in the years following, after a couple drinks I would suddenly hit a familiar pattern/ vibe and feel like myself much more than being sober. Think that literally took like 8 years post college to get over.


TIL of the Ibrahim Prize. a $5 million payout plus $200,000 per year given to African leaders who were democratically elected and left office after their term was up as part of their criteria. For 7 of the 12 years it was offered, it was never awarded to anyone (10/20/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Why take 5 mil payout when you can steal 5 bil from the public purse? doesnt sound like much of an incentive :/


How many years means nothing. Terms can be multi-year-long. What % of African leader who were democratically elected didn't qualify for the prize and why, is the real question.


It's not awarded based on ONLY those criteria. They have to be good leaders too.


That title wording is super weird...


They don't just give it to anybody who leaves office after their term. The title makes it sound like that's all you have to do. One of the criteria is "demonstrated exceptional leadership", which is entirely subjective. A leader could potentially give up their power after their term and not receive the award. That being said they've awarded it 6 times in the 12 years it's existed (they gave it to 2 people the first year).


Living With Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (2019) A Conversation With My Brother (10/18/2019) ~ Documentaries

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I went to high school with a guy who had fetal alcohol syndrome. 20 years later he has a job as a cleaner at a local grocery store. He lives alone in a small bachelor apartment and he's a super nice guy, isn't shy at all, and he'll talk to you like you've been friends his entire life. I see him quite often and even though he doesn't know my name, has no recollection of us going to school together, he's always so happy to see me. It's unfortunate that people I went to high school with didn't know about his condition and he was bullied quite often in the hallways and made fun of for his slurred speech and his appearance. His condition is no fault of his own but kids are so very mean. It would be nice for fetal alcohol syndrome to be discussed more and to raise awareness that this is a very real and preventable thing.


Box of timbits, milk in a bag, and the maple leaf in a single shot. Congratulations on reaching peak Canadian.


Thanks, this was really enlightening. FAS is an underserved situation in the public eye. Very well done 🙂


This is a very intimate documentary. I’m ashamed to say I never knew this was a thing. This is great work from both of you.


Your brother sounds a bit like Jeff Goldblum. Great video!


TIL: Hot dog cart operators pay almost $300k an year, to operate outside Central Park, NYC. (10/21/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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How fuckin much are they pulling in if it costs 300k a year to stay open?


If the average sale is $3, that's 150,000 customers per year to service to bring in $450k. That's 34 customers an hour for 12 hours a day every day. And all that before factoring in overhead.


*For many other parks, especially those in parks outside Manhattan, the fees are much lower — $14,000 in Astoria Park in Queens, $3,200 in Maria Hernandez Park in Brooklyn and $1,100 in Pelham Bay Park in the Bronx. The lowest fee, $700, is paid by the owner of a pushcart near the soccer fields in Inwood Hill Park in Upper Manhattan.*


I was just in NYC this past weekend and was wondering if there are any differences in these carts selling the same things? Are there “go-to” carts? Or is there just so much business in NYC that they’re all able to survive?


822 hotdogs a day (at 100% profit) probably really double that just operate the cart. At 12 hours a day that's 137/hour - so something else has to be going on... drugs, kickback...something.


ELI5: How does a pulse oximeter measure the blood oxygen levels without actually taking blood? (10/19/2019) ~ Explain Like I'm Five

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It's a colorimeter! ELI5: it looks at the color of the blood in your finger and can see how much of it has oxygen based on what color it is.


I'm a nurse. I'm not necessarily an expert on exactly how it works but I have a basic understanding. Basically the little red light that the finger clip lets off goes through your finger and hits the sensor on the other side. Using the power of science the sensor can tell how much of the light was absorbed by the blood going through the finger, and it uses this to math out what percent of the hemoglobin has something bound with it. Hemoglobin (the part of the blood that carries oxygen) absorbs different amounts of light depending on if it has something on it or not and the computer can use that to figure out what percentage of the hemoglobin is bound with other compounds. It's a handy tool for a quick reading but it isn't perfect and has its drawbacks. If someone has fingernail polish on the light won't go through the finger properly and you won't get a good reading. Similarly, if you're really cold or have poor finger circulation for some other reason there won't be enough blood going through to get a reading. In that case, you need a special probe that can be stuck to the forehead or somewhere else to get a reading. Another problem is that it can only tell you how much oxygen is bound to your hemoglobin as a percent of total hemoglobin. So if you're bleeding out or your hemoglobins low from something like anemia, the sensor will read as though you are properly oxygenated even if your cells aren't getting enough oxygen. For example, say your hemoglobin is crazy low, like... 2 (normal is roughly 12-16 for females and 14-18 for males). If you're still breathing ok the sensor will read 100%. But that doesn't matter because 2 hemoglobin isn't enough to give your body the oxygenation it needs even if every bit of it is bound with oxygen. One other issue with it is it only reads what % of your hemoglobin has *something* bound to it. Not just oxygen. Hemoglobin binds to other things besides oxygen. A common example is carbon monoxide. The reason for this is that if you breathe in both oxygen and carbon monoxide, Hemoglobin will bind to the carbon monoxide *before* it binds with the oxygen. This has to do with chemistry and whatnot but basically the hemoglobin has a greater affinity for the carbon monoxide than it does with the oxygen. So if you end up in an ambulance with carbon monoxide poisoning and they put a pulse ox on you, it will probably read as normal. This is because the machine just reads that the hemoglobin has something bound to it, it doesn't realize it's something that you can't breathe. Pulse ox's are a good tool but their just machines that can be fooled and have problems. True low readings are bad and should be treated, but high readings don't necessarily mean the patient is ok. That's why there's a common saying in healthcare to always treat the patient and not the machine. People get super caught up in treating numbers like O2%, blood pressure, etc. without looking to see if those numbers match what the person is experiencing. If your heart monitor says the person's heart isn't beating but they're sitting on the edge of the bed talking to you, it's usually wise to troubleshoot the equipment before trying to do CPR.


It shines a light through your finger, on the other side of an eye that's really sensitive to color. The color of blood is different when there's oxygen in then when it's not in there. So the eye can see the color and determine how much oxygen is on the blood.


Oxygenated homoglobin really likes to aborb infrared light(specifically wavelenght = 940nm), but allows red light(660nm) to pass through. While, deoxygenated homoglobin allows more infrared light to be passed through, but aborbs red light. There are specific sets of lights and sensors that only work on those wavelenghts, and ignore the other. We fire off light and measure how much light gets on the sensor. We can now divide those amounts and get the ratio of saturated blood cells in our bloodstream.


Came back to all these fantastic explanations! Thanks, y'all!


Why We Must Ban Facial Recognition Software Now The benefits do not come close to outweighing the risks. (10/17/2019) ~ Futurology

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I have to be a subscriber to read -_- I’m tired of making subscriptions!


If the public is having the conversation, it's already too late. FR software has been used by law enforcement and governments for the better half of the last decade, and it's only getting more prevalent.


Here's a thing that most people don't understand about themselves. They will trade privacy for convenience. You who's reading this does it, i do it, most people who have a "smart" phone of any capacity will do it. Hell, as much as most of us who are in the know about these things can't damn every single tracker or snooper on the internet without a literal air gap. Though i do get the point of this opinion piece and fully agree on what they have to say, there will very likely be - or already is- an economic incentive to use this technology. Facebook already has a repository of a million or more... faces. Who is to say that a given goverment will request that info in a case? We will have the Terrorist Iphone case, but with a face lock instead of a pin in any case so none of this will matter in the end.


You can homebrew facial recognition already. Talks of banning this when there are published books with code examples and simple step-by-step howtos is ridiculous. ​ At this point even limiting the use is highly inconvenient, and most likely next to impossible to do. Picture sharing social media sites already ID people from pictures by themselves, all the horror-possibilities are already here and at work. It's unstoppable at this point.


you can't ban algorythms, it's like trying to ban text. Even if you make it illegal they can still use it without telling. The battle is already lost.


ELI5: Why does caffeine stop working on the brain/not make people feel awake anymore after adaption but still trigger physical side effects like shaky hands? (10/20/2019) ~ Explain Like I'm Five

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Caffeine works by blocking the detectors that your brain uses to figure out if you are tired. If they get block too often, your brain decides the detectors are not working and simply grows more until their are more detectors than the caffeine can block. This means you can still feel tired now, but that doesn't stop anything else the chemical may do.


When you’re awake, a chemical called adenosine slowly accumulates in your brain. Adenosine binds to receptors which slow down brain activity, making you feel more tired at the end of the day. When you sleep, the level of adenosine declines and promotes wakefulness. Caffeine is very similar to adenosine and binds with the receptors. As it’s not adenosine, no sleepiness is felt. With long-term use of caffeine, your brain responds by creating more adenosine receptors so more caffeine is required for the same effect. Quitting caffeine cold turkey means you would feel more tired than you would have before you drank it. Eventually everything turns back to normal once you stop drinking coffee.


One crucial factor in a lot of your body's reactions is something called "Homeostasis" This is basically a body's tendency to try to stay the same. The word pretty much means "Same Same". The best way to describe it is say you and I push our hands together. The harder I push, the harder you push back to stay where you are. I am the drug, you are your body trying to stay the same. Your body is not very fast at this, so if I suddenly stop pushing, you stagger toward me. The OPPOSITE thing that you wanted the drug or whatever to do happens. Pain killers are a good example of this. If you take them for a long time, you build a tolerance (your body makes you more sensitive to counteract it), then you stop taking them and you feel like you're on fire, or you ache, etc.


Is it only me after drinking coffee and makes anxiety worse ?


We build tolerance over time to all it's effects, but with various speed. I don't even want to pee as much as I wanted when drank coffee for the first weeks. I experienced shaking 5 years ago, now only feel slightest jitter if drank really a lot. About the mechanism: I don't know exactly, but assume that there are several receptors that caffeine binds to (Adenosine A1 and Adenosine A2 as well as other minor targets). These receptors are located in various areas of the brain/nervous system and/so their response to habitual caffeine exposure may be different. For example Adenosine A1 will still cause exactly the same heart palpitation, tremor effect, while A2 waking effects will dissappear. It's because Adenosine A2 receptors antagonism (blockade) will cause changes which in turn will cause number of A2 receptors to increase (which is called downregulation) which in turn will decrease actions of caffeine to this area of the brain. So A2 tolerance may develop much faster than A1 tolerance or something like that. Btw A2 is not so directly mentally stimulating itself. A2 antagonism causes striatal dopamine release (which we call "want" chemical, but it's more complicated, it causes some mental arousal as well), acetylcholine release, etc. Dopamine release may be decreased independently from the above mechanism too. You see, brain is quite complicated as a system and it's research is limited in measures and difficult. BTW I may be wrong in my statements.


ELI5: How does smoking cigarettes give you low doses of radiation? (10/17/2019) ~ Explain Like I'm Five

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Cigarettes contain some radioactive elements. This is not unusual. Many objects around you are slightly radioactive to some degree or another. You are exposed to radioactivity from anything from concrete to bananas to even being near other people. Usually the doses are so low to be not being worth worrying about and in most cases the radiation comes in a from that won't be able to penetrate your skin anyway. However smoking means that you inhale the stuff and instead of being protect by your skin you ar irradiated from the inside especially your lungs where much of the stuff that you inhale ends up. With cigarettes the thing many people worry about is polonium, which is in cigarettes and gets into your lungs and may end up giving you lung cancer. You may wonder why there is radioactive polonium in your cigarettes, it turns out it comes with the tobacco plants which are coated with it. Why are tobacco plants coated with that stuff? Because it is the product of a chain of radioactive reactions occurring in and above the fields, the original source of that apparently comes with the fertilizer people put on tobacco fields. Cigarettes would give you cancer in other ways even without it but it makes it worse.


Others have given excellent answers, but I'd like to add one: smoking causes lung damage and inflammation that makes it more likely for particles to get caught in your lungs instead of breathed in and out normally. Smooth, healthy lungs just breathe it out. Rough, blackened, unhealthy lungs can't. So smokers are also more susceptible than non-smokers to normal radioactive particles in the air, like from the radon decay chain.


A question I can answer! Health Physicist here. The radiation that is absorbed from tobacco is not found in the plant but rather from the environment. When farmers use phosphate fertilizer it contains elevated levels of radioactive Polonium-210. This element cannot be feasibly separated from the fertilizer. The tobbaco plant has millions of tiny hairs that the polonium sticks to. When someone smokes the tobbaco it gets inhaled. If chewed it gets absorbed in the gums. Polonium emits radioactive alpha particles which are harmless unless they come into direct contact with organs (lungs or gums). Further information can be read from the Center for Disease Control (CDC) by searching for Radiation Studies - Smoking and Radiation. Hope that helps 😊


Technically yes. Google says, smoking 40 cigarettes a day for a year will expose you to as much radiation as 250 x-rays of your lung. There is polonium in the tabacco.


Everything gives you low doses of radiation. Sleeping next to someone gives you a low dose of radiation. You are slightly radioactive. Now, go eat a banana.


TIL that the song “Can You Feel the Love Tonight” from The Lion King, was originally meant to have been sung by Timon and Pumbaa. This idea was scrapped after Elton John himself intervened, saying “I don’t want a big, stinky warthog singing my love song!”. (10/20/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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They do start and end it though. That must’ve been the compromise


I can see what’s happening.


He better not sing it himself then!


>Elton, what if we bathe him first?


A big urine scented cat is just so much better


TIL: Lise Meitner, an Austrian-born physicist, discovered that atomic nuclei can be split in half. She and her nephew explained and named nuclear fission in 1939, but the recognition went to Otto Hahn for this discovery. He was granted a Nobel Prize in 1944 in Chemistry. (10/18/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Lise Meitner deserves to be on the same pedestal as Marie Curie, in my opinion. It's a shame she got shafted like that.


History is much more fickle. Otto Hahn was the one who discovered nuclear fission, Lise Meitner was the one who wrote up how to explain it. The experiment was done with bombarding urinaium with neutrons. It wasn't till 1939 when Lise Meitner was in Sweden that Hahn discovered with this experiment that Barium was created. With his correspondence with Meitner he described it as a bursting of the urinaium nucleus. Meitner wrote back that the bursting of the uranium nucleus" was very difficult to accept, but considered it possible.


Wording is a bit unfair in this case. Hahn and Meitner worked together in something that was then considered a boundary between chemistry and physics and required expertise in both. Having them share it would have been more fair, but some reluctance is understandable (interdisciplinary breakthroughs weren't expected to the same extent. Does this mean we hand out 2 prizes for 1 discovery?)


Quoting someone else in a sub-thread: >She was a physicist. Hahn is a chemist. They both were involved in this project. This particular prize was for chemistry. there is a separate nobel prize in physics. The committee awarding the chemistry prize where all chemists. They could have awarded it to both of them, but the records of committee deliberations were unsealed 50 years later (so, in the 1990s) and they clearly showed that the committee didn't understand her contribution. Not because she was female. Because they were chemists, and her contribution were in the physics of it all.


In the 1990s, the long-sealed records of the Nobel Committee's proceedings became public, and the comprehensive biography of Meitner published in 1996 by Ruth Lewin Sime took advantage of this unsealing to reconsider Meitner's exclusion.[In a 1997 article in the American Physical Society journal Physics Today, Sime and her colleagues Elisabeth Crawford and Mark Walker wrote: "It appears that Lise Meitner did not share the 1944 prize because the structure of the Nobel committees was ill-suited to assess interdisciplinary work; because the members of the chemistry committee were unable or unwilling to judge her contribution fairly; and because during the war the Swedish scientists relied on their own limited expertise. Meitner's exclusion from the chemistry award may well be summarized as a mixture of disciplinary bias, political obtuseness, ignorance, and haste."[46] Max Perutz, the 1962 Nobel prizewinner in chemistry, reached a similar conclusion: "Having been locked up in the Nobel Committee's files these fifty years, the documents leading to this unjust award now reveal that the protracted deliberations by the Nobel jury were hampered by lack of appreciation both of the joint work that had preceded the discovery and of Meitner's written and verbal contributions after her flight from Berlin."[8] - wikipedia on her It seems more that they both contributed but that it was more interdisiplinary politics rather then sexism and also that she should have won the prize for chemistry rather then physics as her contributions seem more chemistry rather then physics based.


ELI5: Carbohydrates- The kinds and which ones are best for before and after athletic performance, role in recovery etc. (10/16/2019) ~ Explain Like I'm Five

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Monosaccharides - Single subunit, very easily digested (or rather, straight up absorbed) in almost no time at at all. Glucose/dextrose, fructose. All are just converted into glucose in the body. Disaccharides - Two subunits. Slightly more complex, takes a little longer to digest (e.g. sucrose/table sugar). Polysaccharides - Many subunits. Varies in complexity and digestibility. Starches and glycogen are used for energy storage in plants/animals (respectively). Cellulose can only be partially digested (fiber). Provides your body with a moderate, constant supply of "energy". ​ Before performance - Carb load. Doesn't matter what kind of carbs, as long as you get enough in your body. What you don't use in the next 2-4 hours is converted to glycogen and stored. Starches are dense so you can get a lot in at once. During/after performance - Simple carbs. Glucose/dextrose is the most readily utilized by the body (takes about 10-15 minutes after consumption). Liquids are preferred, as the body does not need to manually break it down. Recovery - Again, doesn't really matter, as long as you're eating enough. The more energy you give your body, the more likely it is that your body's cellular machinery can function optimally. ​ tl;dr Doesn't really matter for most intents and purposes. Drink glucose/dextrose if you want a quick (10-15 min) boost of energy / if you want to raise your blood sugar. For everything else, you can eat anything you want (as long as you also incorporate fats, proteins, vitamins, and minerals). The more complex the carb is, the longer it takes to break down (but it will provide you with a steady source of energy). ​ ​ EDIT (eli3): Carbohydrates are like mini-batteries. Your body can use these batteries only if the batteries aren't still packed together. The simplest carbohydrates (monosaccharides) are one battery, so your body can immediately use them. Some batteries come in packs of two (disaccharides), so you'll need to separate them before you use it. Some batteries are heavy-duty and come in packs of hundreds to thousands (polysaccharides). It takes your body a while to separate them, but you won't need new batteries for a while. Whatever batteries your body doesn't use now will be stored and used later. Whenever you exercise, your body uses energy from the batteries. You want to store them before a big event (heavy duty polysaccharides), and quickly replenish them during and afterwards (simple batteries or double pack) without waiting for your body to break them down. Simplest carbs = monosaccharides = fruits, glucose, dextrose (or even honey) Two-pack = disaccharides = table sugar (sucrose), lactose, maltose Heavy duty = polysaccharides = starches, glycogen


Unless your at the top of your game it's really not that important. Marketing might tell you otherwise and simple carbs post workout might make you feel better but they won't help you max your performance. That's where a dietitian becomes worth the money.


You're playing Need for Speed. You want a quick boost of speed that doesn't last long but is immediately applied so you use Nitros. Once you run out you must rely on acceleration and power generated from the gas in the car. The nitrous is simple sugar and the gas is complex. Quick to be used and energy doesn't last long, compared to gas which is slower to use, and slower to actually be used (to generate speed in this instance). If you've ever run before you may or may not have broken through the "wall". That essentially is once the body switches from simple to complex sugars as the main source of energy. That is why people carb up before a race, to have more complex sugar. Also why someone may be in great shape but still feel terrible for the first 3ish miles. It may take that long to switch to complex carbs.


I really wonder how much of this is really true. So much of how the body really works is not as well known as it was thought. People are actually doing things that were once considered impossible and some are doing it in insane ways (fruitarian ultra marathoners etc that run hundred mile plus races while barefoot).


Carbs are a macro element in food that we eat. There are 3 main macro elements; 2 essential: proteins and fats (your body will not survive without them in the long run) and 1 non essential - carbs. Carbs are basically foods that will be broken down into glucose by your body. The foods are split by how quickly your body can break them down into glucose. This metric is called the glycemic index. In common terms we say ‘fast carbs’ or ‘slow carbs’ and sometimes also ‘simple carbs’ and ‘complex carbs’. Now I’m not going to bother you will all the rubbish about how carbs are bad or how complex carbs are better than simple ones because that is housewife talk. No carbs are inherently bad or good. Each has a proper place and each of abused can cause negative effects on health. (Just like any freaking food there is) Anyway fast carbs are good in the morning and right before the workout. (Also during) Many athletes take advantage of this “energy boost”. Slow carbs are good for any other time but they can sometimes cause a person to feel tired or sleepy. Bare in mind that the amount you eat is just as important as the glycemic index.


TIL that a billionaire hedge fund manager once paid Kenny Rogers $4 Million to sing The Gambler over and over a dozen times at his birthday party. (10/19/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Kenny was probably already so sick of singing that song that he threw out a number that he thought would scare the guy away. The guy replied "Deal!" "Man, I love that song!" - Kenny, probably.


He didn't know when to walk away


This is how "trickle-down" works, I guess


It’s hard for me to fathom what exactly a billionaire hedge fund manager possibly contributes to be deemed a valid profession and take THAT much money from the overall pool. It seems like more of a loophole in our modern stock based economy? Maybe I’m just being a cynic


You'll never believe what Kenny got paid to go ass-to-ass with John Denver.


TIL In 2013 Subway was sued for selling 11-inch Footlongs. In the settlement they agreed to pay $525,000 in attorney fees and required their restaurants to now measure bread, so that Footlong and 6-inch sandwiches will indeed be at least 12 inches and 6 inches, respectively. (10/17/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Apparently Subway was counting the length from the sandwich's taint.


So that's why they aren't $5 anymore 🙁


You don't get more sandwich BTW. You get an inch more bread. What a victory.


I have eaten Subway plenty of times since 2013 and I have never seen them measure the bread when they make a sandwich.


> Class actions are to correct mass wrongs that involve small damages,” Stephen DeNittis, a N.J. attorney representing plaintiffs in the Subway suit, said to the Philadelphia Inquirer in 2013. “It’s not about the money.” Says the recipient of $525,000 in attorney fees


TIL People with depression feel better after listening to sad music (10/21/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Makes me feel like people have shared my pain and helps catharsis imo


This does absolutely the opposite for me. Struggled with depression most of my life, and I have always found that leaning into sad music when l'm depressed both prolongs it and escalates it.


I've always felt like theres some catharsis in sharing sorrow through music. I definitely wouldn't have made it this far without music to take solace in, and I dont know how I'd manage if I was to go deaf or something.


I guess I’m one of the odd ones because I don’t feel better after listening to sad music. 🤔


I never liked sad music when I was going through my worst depression. I wanted to get away from the negative thoughts, so why would I want to listen to music that was about nothing but negative topics? Just how I saw it though.


Sunken Japanese Fleet Carrier Kaga Discovered (10/20/2019) ~ History

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I was not aware so many of the World War II ships had been found. I suppose we are in a Golden Age for underwater archaeology. In any case, she will be left unmolested as a war grave.


Most Japanese ships that were sunk haven't been found due to lack of proper documentation of their sinking locations.


Suspiciously close to the movie release date... but very cool!


A question for /r/history... Suppose the American code breakers do not break the code, or so too late to keep Japan from winning a major battle. Say the US loses 2 carriers instead of 1 and Japan captures the chain of islands, maybe not losing any of the big carriers. My understanding is that there was no way for Japan to actually win the war. They just didn't have enough resources and the US could massively outproduce them. What does this scenario do for the war? Does it cause the US to divert enough resources West, that not enough support can be provided to Britain and the USSR? The US can still defeat Japan, but can Germany now defeat Russia and trigger a stalemate in Europe?


How many sailors actually died in the ship? Wouldn’t most of them get out while it was sinking?


TIL about 13-year old Eliza Armstrong who was purchased for £5 by journalist W.T. Stead in his attempt to expose sex slavery in Victorian London. Though his newspaper story led to tighter laws protecting women & girls, he was still arrested & jailed for abduction & procurement. (10/20/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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It seems as though he was asked by the government to cease publication due to fear of riots - when he refused, his competitors released a smear article which resulted in his arrest. Public opinion still being on his side, the sentence was light and he was released relatively unscathed. Had public opinion been more easily manipulated, things may have ended very differently.


Also died on the Titanic


Sometimes in the effort to expose darkness you have to break a few laws. Good on him.


I became obsessed with this case and did a great deal of research hoping to turn it into a play. Fascinating story.All of the editorials are available at the New York Public Library. The preachers wife, the former madam, Bramwell Booth son of the founder of the Salvation Army were all involved in the fight. And yes, Stead did die on the Titanic.


GB has a rich tradition of protecting pedophiles and even punishing those who attempt to expose them, see Jimmy savior, prince Andrew, the numbers Pakistani child trafficking rings, Westminster pedophile dossier etc. America isn't the best either, but you really see the contrast that having free speech protection has, accusers of Jimmy Savile were faced with legal action because of their accusations. If this had occurred in the US, the court system might fail, the public may not be interested, but at the very least state power won't be suppressing victims.


Undercover With The Clerics: Iraq’s Secret Sex Trade (2019) – BBC documentary on ‘pleasure marriages’ exposes how Iraqi Muslim clerics sell girls as young as nine for sex (10/16/2019) ~ Documentaries

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there is now a petition to get the bbc to take this down because "it shows shia islam in a bad light and will lead to increased islamophobia in the UK" ​ like if you dont want people to think you are a bunch of kiddie fuckers.. STOP FUCKING KIDS....


I heard this the other day on my way in to work and I had to turn it off because it was early and I was getting too angry.


That sounds disgusting.


There is currently a petition to have it taken down from the BBC iPlayer site. On the grounds that it cast Islam in a bad light and will increase islamaphobia. The BBC have said no so far. So, it’s a big up for the BBC so far.


when it comes to kiddie-sex, priests and clerics have the market cornered. perhaps it's time to do away with organized religions.


TIL The song Macarena is about a girl who cheats on her boyfriend while he joins the military (10/19/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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I’m Spanish and I’ve heard this song a thousand times! First, yes, it’s about Macarena cheating on her boyfriend, and second, yes, the boyfriend was in the military, but just being sworn in, no fully a militar yet, which is worse, because the “Jura de bandera” mentioned in the song is a very important event for soldiers, since it’s like a graduation, and usually all the family gathers to go and watch and congratulate the newly sworn in soldier.... it’s only a happy song because of the dance and the tune, the lyrics are hilariously horrible from a moral point of view.


it's a wretched song about a wretched person that cheats on her boyfriend with not one, but two of his friends. i don't know where they got the military thing, there's nothing in the words (English or Spanish) about that, but hey, whatever to make it more interesting i guess


Moral of the story: Don't let pop lyrics guide your life.


TIL the Macarena is about something


So the Macarena should be renamed the Jody


TIL Anoka, Minnesota was the first U.S. city to put on a Halloween celebration when they did so in 1920 to divert youngsters from Halloween pranks. It was also proclaimed “The Halloween Capital of the World” by Congress in 1937. Today, tens of thousands of people visits Anoka annually for Halloween. (10/20/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Wow never thought I'd see my home town on Reddit. If you ever go to Anoka get some wings from Serums some of the best wings I've had and definitely compete with the best.


Salem Massachusetts is probably the craziest, largest Halloween festival i know of. The entire city revolves around the month of October.


Must not be that amazing. I've lived in Minnesota my whole life and this is the first I've heard of this.


Ok, I've been to Anoka and saw the "Halloween Capital of the World!" signs, and asked people *in Anoka* what that was about and they all said they thought it was "just something we say". So either everyone in Anoka was trolling me, or they all forgot about this. To be fair, the former is not unlikely.


So many Minnesotans in the comments. Nice.


TIL Since female dairy cows are much more valuable than bulls we use machines to sort bull semen into male vs female semen. These machines work based on the fact that XX semen have more DNA than XY, and thus greater mass, and can be automatically discriminated when colored with florescence. (10/18/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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"Hey guys, I made a machine that finds the heaviest cow cum!"


Can this be done with humans too?


As an aside, the wife of an acquaintance made mad money as a bull semen collector. She jacked off bulls for a living. I always wonder if that impacted their sex life... "I mean, you dick is cute, but it's nothing like the bull I jacked off this morning!"


I think you mean semen which carry an X chromosome and semen which carry a Y chromosome, because cows are diploid creatures with haploid gametes.


We use flow cytometry. It assigns a charge to the XXs then shoots them through a microscopic stream, 1 cell thick. This stream passes between two metal plates, these plates are charged accordingly. It literally splits a stream off from the original stream, this stream is attracted to one side, males and dead cells are discarded while the females are collected in test tubes. It gets waaaaaay more complicated than that, but our accuracy depends on how fast output we want to run the machines at. If we go slow we can get >95% accuracy on the cells. The industry standard is 92%. Different bulls have better efficiency and accuracy. Holsteins are the most popular with great efficiency and accuracy. Source: Am a flow cytometry lab tech for one of the largest bull sexing biotech labs.


ELI5: Why do all vitamin supplements say that their claimed benefits aren’t verified. Do we really not have any confirmation of what vitamins do? (10/20/2019) ~ Explain Like I'm Five

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We have confirmation of what vitamins do. What vitamins do and what vitamin supplement sellers want you to believe they do, however, are two entirely different things. Stops your teeth from falling out? That's something vitamins do. Treats the common cold? That's not something vitamins do. For people who's teeth aren't falling out as it is, the second one sells better.


They are required by law to put that disclaimer on there. Supplements don't have to go through FDA approval before being offered for sale, but at the same time there are certain sorts of health claims they cannot make, and they need to state explicitly that the claims they do make have not been evaluated by the FDA and are not intended to treat any disease.


Because the evidence required to support real health or medical benefits are regulated extremely stringently. Supplements however, are not well regulated. If they want to say that their product DOES something medically related, they need to prove it in scientific studies which are expensive and time consuming. However, they can advertise it saying it MAY do something while avoiding the cost of actually providing evidence. Vitamins have very little evidence to suggest they provide a health benefit outside of people with deficient diets. This is why they can't say they do anything much at all!


Vitamins are good for treating vitamin deficiencies. If you do not have a vitamin deficiency, supplemental vitamins are just expensive urine.


One thing to keep in mind is that the supplement industry is a very dark industry. Vendors have gotten dinged for things found in supplements they sell. Also whenever studies are done and reports written there is money behind all of that more geared toward sales to consumers than scientific observation. We are reaching a time when the one thing we can depend upon is we can't depend upon anyone giving us the honest truth.


TIL that during WWII, J. Hunter Reinburg wanted to make ice cream for his men while stationed on a tropical island in the Pacific. He put the ingredients in a can mounted on the underside of his plane and would fly to 25,000 feet where the air temperature was -30 degrees fahrenheit. (10/17/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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They went on to have ice cream barges. Ships literally dedicated to making ice cream out of these giant repurposed cement mixers. One Japanese general said that's how he knew they lost the war. When the Japanese soldiers were scavenging for food and we had a fuckin' ice cream barge. God Bless America.


My favorite bit is that they tried to keep it secret (because they were making lots of unnecessary flights and lying about the reasons) until the base commander called them up, furious: "Listen, goddammit, you guys aren’t fooling me. I’ve got spies. You tell [Reinburg] I’m coming over there tomorrow and getting my ration!"


This website is an abomination.


Government Efficiency at Contractor Cost I'll take one order of FUBAR Fudge please.


So, based on how much fuel he spent, how much did the Icecream cost?


Scarlet Road: A sex worker’s journey (2016) a lovely documentary about a sex worker who focuses on clients with disabilities (10/21/2019) ~ Documentaries

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This is a much needed service, man. In 10th grade Mrs. Douglas, a true badass of a woman, told us she supported prostitution. When someone asked why she said some very impactful shit, "Well it's a great way for people with disabilities to get a natural human anti-depressant." She was one of the only teachers to ever like me, which is awesome because she was the coolest person.


This was really interesting to watch. I can't lie, some parts made me really squeamish. But Rachel's commitment to ensuring everyone has normal sexual experiences is so affecting, she seems like such an interesting person, and so do her clients. It makes me feel so torn... I obviously support what she is doing and the legalization of prostitution. But I also wish all the disabled people in the documentary could have partners if they wanted them. I know that prostitution gives them a means to express themselves sexually but probably a lot of people also just want a partner that they can talk to about their day, EVERY day. I feel so genuinely lucky for having a husband and even though I have my own health issues it puts into perspective how privileged I am. I hope everyone can find happiness with themselves and what they do.


Guy has great sense of humor. Otto’s mom is a great mother and an extraordinarily understanding person. Rachael is always cheerful and bringing happiness to people who would never get it otherwise. And disabled aren’t the only “forbidden to have sex” people. The ugly, the socially impaired, the old, the secluded etc.


I work with people with disabilities and it's nice to see documentaries like this.


At around the 47 minute mark during the shower the emotions were so powerful I started crying. She is amazing. She is giving these beautiful souls a chance to have intimacy, and she really cares about them. This is beautiful.


Virtual autopsy on 150-year-old remains shows how smallpox colonizes the human body (10/16/2019) ~ History

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Me and my university class got to visit the company that developed this very software about a month ago. They're called Visualiseringscenter C and are located in Norrköping, Sweden. They apparently had big funding from NASA in one of their space-related projects. They showed us similar scans as those shown in the video, of bodies ranging from 1 to 2000 years old and even an ancient fossil. One example showed the body of an adult male who died maybe a thousand years ago. Iirc, the scans of the body revealed the person had gotten stabbed in the back. They were able to tell that the wound was deep enough that it likely damaged his inner organs and that that was the probable cause of death. They jokingly called it the world's oldest murder investigation to be solved in modern times. All of this without making a scratch on the body. Super cool stuff and a super cool company.


Great! Now we can finally eradicate small pox once and for all!!


That was more of an advertisement for the software and screen.


I had a PET-CT scan done recently, the doctors gave me the files and I found a software online for me to open it. I gotta say, seeing your skeleton, organs and dick in 3D is an experience


I could hope my body ends up somewhere like this. Otherwise it's like one, maybe two, generations till I'm forgotten forever. Fuck.


TIL that Roman Emperor Domitian staged a banquet so spooky the guests were sure they were going to die by execution sometime during the night. (10/18/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Well it is certainly easier to make a spooky event scary when you have the power to execute your guests.


If I pay $40 for a haunted house, I *better* die


Possibly. He likely staged such a dinner. Whether it had the said affect is up for debate. Domitian was a favorite of Roman writers to pick on. It basically comes from the fact that he tried more than anyone up to that point, and for a long time afterward, to rip any allusion of power from the Senate and put it where it belonged - the Emperor’s hands. This caused quite the blowback from the elite, particularly senators. So they came up with all sorts of stories about how evil Domitian was. You have to take what Suetonius and others say about Domitian with a grain of salt.


Read the article. Arguably the creepiest part is the fact this guy gifted "slave boys" to a bunch of old men. But, to save you some time (and a link) the Emperor basically set up a banquet that imitated funeral rites for each guest. Such as solid silver tombstones engraved with their names. So after the (likely somber) feast of lackluster food (offerings for the dead) these guys all spent the night expecting this to end as a very elaborate execution. Instead the Emperor basically said "JK, nobody dying. Here's a silver tombstone with your name on it and some slave boys. Now go home. And don't forget." Overall the entire banquet just seemed like a flex.


Great read, thanks for sharing. Caligula was one evil individual. There was a very small paragraph about the craziness of Caligula and how his guests were in constant fear about getting executed Edited to clarify my Caligula statement.


Tell Me Who I Am (2019) – After losing his memory, Alex relies on his twin brother to teach him who he is, but the idyllic childhood Alex paints is hiding a traumatic family secret. (10/19/2019) ~ Documentaries

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Is the title right? It says Alex twice


Just watched it. Feel a little sick. Can't help but feel the "right" brother was the keeper of these memories.


MAJOR SPOILERS!!!!!! >>>>>>>>>>>>>> I just watched this documentary and had a very strong reaction to it. Just wondering if anyone else can relate.... >!I’m sure the memory loss that Alex went through was very difficult, and especially that moment over a decade later, when he learned the truth and lost the absolute trust that he had in his brother. But the way he kept going on and on about how he didn’t know who he was and couldn’t stand the secrets anymore and just kept talking about how his life was incomplete and a lie and PUSHING Marcus to tell him...just really made me so angry! You DO know who you are - you are the person you have been from 18 years on - you are the person you are right now. Did the accident damage the part of his brain that contains empathy?!? How can he not understand what his brother did for him and why he had to do it?!< >!Marcus did the absolute best that he could being an 18-year-old and shouldering the UNBELIEVABLE burden of years and years of horrifying sexual abuse, and then suddenly being completely alone with that burden when Alex lost his memory. And he coped by compartmentalizing all his trauma and constructing what he knew would be a better life for his brother... And then when I saw how Marcus was able to move on and start a family of his own and live a fairly healthy normal life, and THEN when he told the story about how he STOPPED the abuse at the age of 14 - he stood up to one of his abusers because he KNEW it wasn’t right, and he SAVED his brother from all future abuse - it just honestly solidified this man as one of the strongest people I have ever heard of. What he did for his brother was a GIFT - he SAVED him twice - and honestly I think Marcus is a fucking hero.!< >!YES, it’s not healthy that he held his story in for so long, and I am glad he finally got it out, but it fucking broke my heart when he was beating himself up about betraying his brother, and hoping that one day Alex would forgive him?!?!? You have absolutely nothing to apologize for, nothing to be ashamed of Marcus! You RESCUED your brother TWICE! You coped using all the tools you had available to you at the time! And your story is yours to tell, and YOU should be able to decide how and when and where and who to tell it to.!< >!I’m going to have to give Alex the benefit of the doubt and assume that the filmmakers may have played up the rift between the brothers and encouraged Alex to keep pushing Marcus and making it seem like his burden was just as bad as Marcus’s. And I suppose I am completely biased because I understand a bit more about the shame of sexual abuse, being a survivor, while I understand nothing about memory loss. But the gift Marcus tried to give his brother was a beautiful thing. And Alex just didn’t seem to understand that at all. You can see it clearly in their faces, in their bodies, in their emotional reactions, that Alex has been spared SO MUCH by the courage and strength of his twin brother.!< Okay, RANT over.


Has anyone seen this and can review?


Fascinating idea, wondering if replacing the memories can cure PTSD from trauma?


TIL Charles Babbage lost 2 games of chess to the Mechanical Turk, an automaton with a chess player hidden inside that fooled people that a machine could play chess. He knew it was a hoax but it inspired his work on the Difference Engine and then the Analytical Engine, the world’s first computer. (10/19/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Machines that can play chess? *That’ll* be the day.


Ohhh so that's why the Amazon crowdsourcing marketplace is called "Mechanical Turk". I always wondered why it was named that.


deeper down the rabbit hole: the world's first computer programmer was Ada Lovelace, Babbage's collaborator, working on the Analytical Engine. Mary Shelly wrote "Frankenstein" as a houseguest of Lord Byron, Ada Lovelace's father.


I’m gonna build my own Turk, with blackjack... and hookers! - C. Babbage


I'm thinking back to a paper I wrote on Babbage in middle school. If I recall, he also: - cooked himself in an oven briefly to see what it felt like - hated street music - and was generally unpopular enough that neighbors would throw dead cats through his windows and also hired a band to serenade him while he died It was supposed to be a paper focusing on his math contributions, but I literally don't remember any of them, so thanks for this!


TIL the classic 1970 war movie Kelly’s Heroes was based on an actual robbery of the Nazi gold reserves by a syndicate of US and German servicemen in 1945. It was covered up by the US and Germany and only two gold bars found in 1996 have been recovered worth about $1m at today’s prices. (10/19/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Hey I have that movie. It's great.


"Why don't you knock it off with them negative waves?"


Great cast for its day. Clint Eastwood, Donald Sutherland, Telly Savalas, and Don Rickles.


This was a classic go-to movie for tankers. Few movies have tanks really doing tank shit. The element of having hippies in the 1940s is odd but Oddball is a classic.


That is one of my favourite ever movies, one I have watched countless times and will again countless more. It gets better every time.


TIL that staring into someone’s eyes for ten minutes straight may cause disassociation and hallucinations. (10/21/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Consequentially, this is part of how the "Bloody Mary" game works. Stare at your own reflection in the dark for long enough, your brain stops registering what you're looking at as *being* your reflection. Suddenly becoming certain that *something else* is staring out at you from the mirror can be a rather startling experience, even if it only lasts a second.


Yeah well I think staring straight for 10 minutes at everything could cause disassociation and hallucinations. No need for another persons eyes


> A psychologist based in Italy says he has found a simple way to induce in healthy people an altered state of consciousness – simply get two individuals to look into each other’s eyes for 10 minutes while they are sitting in a **dimly lit room**. Maybe you should remember the dimly lit room part before you go try this out.


But have you ever stared into someone’s eyes for ten minutes straight.... on weed?


How do you keep them from trying to get away?


TIL a study conducted at the University of Montreal showed that young people who played the 1996 game Super Mario 64 for just two months had increased spatial and episodic memory, which improves brain capacity and helping to forestall dementia. (10/20/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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So video games *don't* rot my brain, but actually help? I knew my mom was lying.


Old folks homes are full of video games like wii. They should add more, imo.


Where do I get this game? —Senior citizen


You know how in Sherlock he has a mind palace? I feel like SM64 trained my brain the same way, and the way I compartmentalizations and process memories and data is very similar


So my 5+ replays of this game not to mention the original struggle of clearing all stars without the help of internet back in 1998 made me the genius I am today? Makes sense.


TIL the financiers of The Human Centipede did not know about the mouth-to-anus aspect of the film until after it was complete (10/16/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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This is the most well known film I've never watched and will never watch.


Interestingly enough, the financiers of The Human Centipede 2 knew about the mouth-to-anus aspect, but not the mouth-to-anus-to-mouth-to-anus-to-mouth-to-anus-to-mouth-to-anus-to-mouth-to-anus-to-mouth-to-anus-to-mouth-to-anus-to-mouth-to-anus-to-mouth-to-anus-to-mouth-to-anus-to-mouth-to-anus-to-mouth-to-anus aspect. They were completely bamboozled.


Man, I didn't see the first and I just read the summaries of the sequels and decided this guy may have something wrong with him


Bet that left a bad taste in their mouths


They didn't read the end user agreement.


TIL the Welsh word Hireath means to have a homesickness or to long for something, someone, or somewhere that may not have existed or no longer exist and there’s no English equivalent. (10/16/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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There's no English equivalent? > **to have a homesickness or to long for something, someone, or somewhere that may not have existed or no longer exist** The strong form of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, that we can't even understand the concept behind "Hireath" because it's not a part of our language, has been proven ridiculous by linguists. There are lots of words between languages that are not 1:1. There's nothing noteworthy in that.


Sounds like the Portugese "saudade"


> and there’s no English equivalent. Yes there is, it's > homesickness or to long for something, someone, or somewhere that may not have existed or no longer exist


Hir - long Aeth - gone/went My family/welsh speaking friends and I just tend you use the word like you'd use the word "miss" (as in "I miss my cat" etc.). I suppose it can be used to used to mean your definition but usually it isn't that deep.


This Is Life With Lisa Ling – The Benzos Crisis (2019) explores whether fallout from the widespread use of benzodiazepines, or benzos, such as Xanax, Klonopin, and Ativan could become America’s next big health crisis (10/16/2019) ~ Documentaries

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Become? What fucking year is this? It’s been a crisis for over a decade.


I was on prescribed Klonopin for 4 months and holy shit is that stuff actually addicting. these medications in my experience make your anxiety so much worse when you're off of them. I'd say it took nearly three years off of Klonopin for me to have same amount of anxiety as before I took it. I thought my anxiety was bad before but after using Klonopin for 4 months I couldn't even cook dinner without nearly having a panic attack if I didn't take those pills. I'm so happy I'm off of them and feel normal-ish. I know never to touch that shit ever again. it's a temporary solution that just makes the problem that much worse when you don't have it.


What this highlights is the awful state of the US psychiatric profession. My wife suffered from depression years ago. She sought the help of a psychiatrist. Like the poor young man in this video, the psychiatrist loaded my wife up with drugs with serious side effects and withdrawal impacts. He kept putting her on whatever new drug got pushed by the pharma sales reps who showed up to his office. In very quick succession, he put her on Effexor, Zoloft, Lexapro, Klonopin, and others whose names I forget. He disregarded even the manufacturers' own recommended withdrawal approaches, having her abruptly discontinue one drug in favor of another when it seemed one didn't work rapidly. My wife experienced severe withdrawal symptoms, resulting in a worsening depression, paranoia, and culminating in 2 suicide attempts. Thankfully, neither was successful. We finally got to a competent physician, who helped her step down all meds, and work on using talk therapy as her primary mode of treatment. She went from suicidal to completely normal over several months. More than 10 years later, she is fully healthy and flourishing as a professional and as a mom. She came so close to dying, and I blame the jackass of a psychiatrist who put her on a pill roller coaster.


These medications helped me immensely, at one point was taking 3 ativan a day for months(absolutely needed to.)Got down to 1 a day for prob another year and then slowly weened to twice a week or so. I had no problems with them and now I prob take less than 1 a month. These saved my life, honestly. This is my experience, I'm not trying to discredit anyone, but use them the right way and don't just abruptly stop taking them. With all the negativity these drugs get I just wanted to share my positive story with them. Always consult a doctor! Edit: Want to add I was on antidepressants at this time and still am, could’ve made the transition a bit easier


Those pills keep my wife alive and stable.


ELI5: Whats the functional difference on a group of muscles between taking a muscle relaxer, stretching and working out? (10/20/2019) ~ Explain Like I'm Five

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Muscle Relaxer - Prevents muscle constriction. Keeps them loose and relaxed. Helps with some muscle diseases. Stretching - Makes the muscle longer and stretches it out. Useful for increasing your flexibility which can increase performance in some ways. (Help you get into a proper squat stance, increase ability in certain sports) Working out - You're putting your muscles through stress which forces them to adapt. The muscle cells are damaged by the stress and they respond by growing bigger in size and in number.


So would it be possible too take muscle relaxers before static stretching to increase speed of muscle stretching.


Muscle relaxers (most popular of which is Flexeril/cyclobenzaprine) help cramped muscles relax by inhibiting the signals to the muscles that start in the spinal cord. They don’t actually work on the muscle tissue itself, they work on the spinal cord/brain stem signals that are the ones telling the muscles to cramp. These are specifically meant to help muscle cramps that are due to injury or dysfunction. They will not improve muscle length or flexibility, they simply reduce the painful contraction associated with cramping/spasm that occurs with, for example, spraining your neck or tearing your rotator cuff. Stretching (sometimes) improves the actual length and range of motion of a muscle, i.e. flexibility. By holding a stretch for a certain length of time (static stretching), the muscle will literally add more structural units to its end to grow longer. Longer muscles with a greater range of motion are generally healthier because they don’t get injured as easily, and they also don’t put as much tension on the structures they are attached to. For example, tight hamstrings put tension on your pelvis which can cause low back pain. Sport stretching is different from static stretching, because generally for a sport warm up we don’t hold the stretches long enough to stimulate the muscles to actually grow longer. But sport stretching is still beneficial because it puts the muscle through its full range of motion prior to your workout or sport, which helps it get ready to work and makes it less likely to cramp or get pulled. Regarding your last topic, “work out,” that’s hard to answer because that is a very broad term. Sticking with the theme of muscle health, I’ll assume we’re talking about muscle. Strengthening your muscles is helpful for a lot of reasons, the most important of which is that strength provides stability for your whole body. For example, having strength in the muscles in between your shoulder blades is important for posture. Muscles that are too weak to do their jobs become irritable. A lot of people get knots and cramps in between the shoulder blades because those muscles are too weak to stabilize the shoulder blades, so the shoulder blades drift apart and pull on the muscles. TLDR: muscle relaxers work on the spinal cord signals to stop muscle cramps, stretching for a long period makes muscles grow longer, stretching for a short period helps you avoid cramps during sport, and strengthening muscles makes them less mad because they’re better stabilized.


On another note, how does massaging effect muscles? If I recall from A&P, it has something to do with stimulating the over-contracting reflex? (Can't remember what the exact term is.)


Another thing would be the difference between a anti-spasm and anti-spasticity. Or is that outside the scope?


TIL that Inventor Lewis Latimer, not only made Thomas Edison’s Light Bulb more efficient & practical, he invented an Apparatus for Cooling & Disinfecting, making rooms more sanitary & climate-controlled. He also improved the design of elevators & co-invented (1874) a toilet for train cars. (10/16/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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I'd always assumed the toilet on rail cars started as just a hole


Edison was a thieving hack. ^(Brought to you by the Tesla Gang)


Incredible! He should be in the history books too. Black history is American history.


It is prudent to point out that he collaborated with Joseph Nichols to produce a more efficient light bulb filament and that your title is misleading with regards to this fact. He also did not improve the design of elevators. I have no idea where you're getting that from. Why make up stuff when he has other impressive feats you could list, such as improving the production method for filaments and the fact that he wrote the first book on electrical lighting: " *Incandescent Electric Lighting*", led a long and distinguished career overseeing electric light installations across several major cities, and finally become a patent consultant to law firms. **Patents** * Water closets for railway cars * *Electric lamp (with Joseph Nichols)* * Process of manufacturing carbons * *Electric lamp supporter (with John Tregoning)* * Early air conditioning unit apparatus for cooling and disinfecting * Locking rack for hats, coats, and umbrellas * *Lamp fixture (with Charles Brown)*


Ah yes, the famous Latimer Train Toilet of 1874. No other train toilet is as reliable.


TIL Russia removed Saturday and Sunday from the calendar for 11 years to create a “continuous working week” from 1929 to 1940. (10/16/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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So instead of everyone having Saturday off, some people had Mondays off, others had Tuesdays off, others Wednesday, etc. So your "Weekend" came at different points of the week so the factories didn't stop. In theory, from a purely output perspective, it's brilliant. But then you have to remember the radical notion that people are humans and these humans have lives and loved ones, so if you didn't get the rest day on the same day as your partner you might not ever really get to spend time with them. (*lower-class labourers stand up and say "wait, how is that different than what we do now?")


Ahh Friday finally can enjoy the........NOOOOOOOOO!


Shhhhhhh. dont give anyone else that idea.


> Unlike the ordinary seven-day week, the continuous week began as a five-day cycle, with each day color-coded and marked with a symbol. The population would be carved up into as many groups, each with its own rest day. I wonder how many people didn’t bother reading the article?


No wonder Russians drink so much. So much for a "worker's paradise."


TIL that several of the peoples of the eastern New Guinea Highlands have developed an “avoidance language”, used when collecting pandanus nuts in order to not use words that are thought of as being “unhealthy” for the plants. (10/19/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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The english word "bear" is another example of this. People thought that if they said the name of the creature they would summon one, so they used the word "bear" which means "brown one". Old welsh used a word meaning "honey pig", russian used "honey eater", etc. On reddit people will use the phrase T_D instead of naming the subreddit, to avoid summoning trolls and lunatics.


Is this the New Guinean version of me spelling out words I don’t want my dog to understand? s-a-l-a-m-i


You really should try to be kind while robbing them of their babies.


Man I read that as panda anus nuts. Had me confused for a min


I do the same thing with my dog. Try to avoid his name, or saying anything too close to "walk."


British Raj’s torture “experiments” on Indian freedom fighters (10/18/2019) ~ History

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There's a looooot of problematic comments here, so a gentle reminder about **Rule 12: No Atrocity Olympics**: > No Atrocity Olympics. Atrocities aren't an Olympic event, to be compared and scored according to how 'bad' they were. All mass killings, crimes against humanity, aggression, and repression are terrible, and while it is important to be able to contextualize the scope of a given event, boiling that scope down to a number to argue on a top-ten list or 'worst of' thread both denies the humanity of what happened and cheapens the severity of the crimes. We invite and indeed encourage discussion of atrocities. It is vital that we transparently analyze and keep such tragedies in living memory, so that they are understood and never repeated. But that needs to be done in their own context.


An interesting but harrowing read of the conditions in Andaman and Nicobar Island prisons where Indian freedom fighters were imprisoned and tortured. The article is more than 18 years old but the extensive interviews cover the heartbreaking conditions the prisoners were subjected to. Below extract from the article clearly shows extensive record keeping but also apathy showed towards the prisoners. >*And tucked between the pages are government approvals for secret pharmaceutical trials: "From the Secretary to the Government of India, Simla, June 24th 1880, despatch 197, to Dr J Reid, Senior Medical Officer, Port Blair: Regarding a new drug, cinchona alkaloid, the experimental use is very desirable... and should be confined to 1,000 convicts."* > >*Dr Reid's sample group was force-fed "three grains a day" until they started to sicken. "Convict 25276. Observed on 22 March 1881. In a weak state. Bloodless. Tongue large, pale and flabby. Diarrhoea. Dead in two days."* > >*Cinchona was a tree imported to Asia from Peru whose bark would later be distilled to make quinine, an effective and natural anti-malarial. But the rough preparation and dosage experimented with by the prison doctors caused acute side effects: nausea and diarrhoea. It was also a depressant. In monthly reports for the period of the test, the chief commissioner, Lieutenant-Colonel T Cadell, observed "a remarkable increase in suicides". Convicts "weary of life" were literally hacking each other to pieces, hoping to secure the death penalty. But Cadell had a solution: "Flogging and a reduced diet." Everyone under the age of 22 was now required to sleep in "a sort of trellis-work cage".*


I’ve been to Cellular Jail as a visitor. It still chills the bones when you walk the long corridor and go to the last cell where Vir Savarkar was kept. I think they used to allow you to go in the cell and try it out. 11 year old me didn’t dare. ‘Kalapani’ (Black water) was a terrible thing.


It wasn't even that long ago. Can western nations really complain when other nations don't trust them? It's not like we're talking about medieval history here.


Well... that was the stuff of nightmares


TIL that a schizophrenic Canadian man who beheaded and then partially cannibalized a fellow passenger on a greyhound bus in 2008, was institutionalised for 9 years and then given an absolute discharge and released. (10/19/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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They always specify "partially cannibalized" as if anyone would be physically capable of eating an entire human being.


Just imagine that scene, you're on a bus with a bunch of other passengers and you just see some guy doing that. It probably took like 45 minutes to do. From killing the guy to taking his head off while everyone else just got off in fear


Releasing him for good behavior is one thing, but did they have to give him a handjob too?


we trust our mental health professionals because they make informed opinions.


A recent study in Canada found that the psychiatric route has half the recidivism rate as prison. It also found that convicts tended to spend more time in hospital than they would have spent in prison.


Heat-seeking drone finds missing 6-year-old Minnesota boy in cornfield (10/18/2019) ~ Futurology

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So acclimated am I to contemporary America that I spent *a solid 30 seconds* thinking this was an article about drone striking a child.


“Heat seeking technology” It’s a drone with a thermal camera, get out of here with this clickbait bullshit


I used to love dystopian scifi with all these magical flying cameras everywhere. Half life 2 had them and now it seems they are a reality and now we call them drones. All thats needed is better battry tec and solar pannels and those things could stay up forever and ever.


I thought for sure they were referring to a heat-seeking missile.


The article doesn't even make it clear. I'm assuming, as someone else posted, that it was a piloted drone with thermal imaging. The article implies the drone was autonomous. I wish I could get a job writing imprecise junk articles.


TIL During the Cold War a ‘Three world’ model arose to describe nations either aligned with NATO (first world),the Eastern Bloc (second world) or the’Third World’. Rather than economic this was a political grouping loosely describing ‘unaligned’ nations in the ‘devoloping world. (10/19/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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TIL Switzerland is a third world country.


Crazy that there was a time not too long ago Iran was a staunch Western ally.


This: i am tired of explaining to people these terms.


Language evolves and doesn't mean what it was intended to mean. If you call Bolivia a third-world country, the vast majority will understand it as a metric of prosperity and not in political Cold War connotations.


In India this was known as Non-Alignment Movement or NAM. Nehru was founding member of NAM and actively tried to recruit newly independent countries to join and focus on improving their economy independently rather than asking USSR or US for help.


TIL That Loofah Sponges are the interior of a gourd native to South East Asia. The young fruit is often grown as a food crop, and when the gourds mature, they get a hard fibrous interior which are often sold as cleaning sponges. (10/18/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Ngl, I’ve been using them for a while and I thought they were sea sponges.


We eat it in the Philippines. Taste is earthy zucchini, and texture is a more fibrous okra.


When I was a kid in the South Pacific, we used the fiber from the coconut husk to wash up. Coconuts: your one stop shop product.


Ah, I grew up around these. Mom used to have a couple of these around anytime we needed a scrubber. Extensively used in rural India. Dirt cheap to buy. If taken as a food crop, they can be prepped with potatoes and poppy seeds. Absolute bliss.


Konjac sponges have a similar root.


TIL that the creator of Rocko’s Modern Life, Joe Murray, was asked by executives to put a female role model in the show. After some back and forth, a female executive requested “”a professional woman, someone with a good hook.”. So, Murray created Dr Hutchinson, a female doctor with a literal hook. (10/19/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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He could've just as easily created a female boxer with a good hook


the giant hippo woman who always tosses rocko is a very strong female character




MEYERS The rest of you writers start thinking up a name for this funky dog; I dunno, something along the line of say... Poochie, only more proactive. KRUSTY Yeah! Meyers, Krusty and the network executive leave. OAKLEY So, Poochie okay with everybody? WRITERS Yeah...


I love this show, I should probably rewatch it.


TIL In 1897 a Swedish Balloonist and his two colleagues began their nationally covered journey to fly over the North Pole in a hydrogen balloon. Four decades later a whaling ship came across their remains on a small arctic island, having crashed and perished in the tough arctic climate. (10/18/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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One of my favourite facts! Also fun to know that the team leader intentionally lied about the ability to steer and control the balloon (by dragging a rope behind it on the ground, which was proven not to work in trials prior to the expedition). But he really wanted to go, so he lied, said it was all good, and surprise - it was actually very not good. Bonus marks for everyone on the trip rather drastically not comprehending gas takes up less space as it gets colder (volume of gas is directly proportional to its temperature)...And they’re going to the ARCTIC. Enjoy your floppy deflated balloon, gents.


Did they make it over the Pole?


They should have listened the Norwegian guy, he told them that was no dog.


The problem was not the volume of gas or the steering. The reason they died was that they didn't bring enough of those meatballs with the lingonberry stuff. Poor planning in the meatball Dept.


Why don't we use balloons more for heavy lifting? Like if I was a farmer and I needed to move a cow with a broken leg, why not use a large industrial balloon of some sort? I mean aren't boats/ships basically "balloons" in that they rely on buoyancy?


TIL an elevator with 6 people fell 84 floors in a Chicago skyscraper in 2018. All survived. (10/20/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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I wonder why it fell 84 floors before the safety locks engaged?


Now all of them take the stairs


Did anyone actually read the article? There was no fall. One of the cables snapped while in motion and the car stopped. They dont mention a fall at all. Also for the couch experts. Each cable is physically strong enough to hold the full weight of the car and counter weight. The reason there is more than 1 cable is for traction and speed. Edit: as pointed out the journalist mentions a fall. Unfortunately they are wrong.


Doesn’t sound to me like it was a freefall situation though. Still not pleasant in any way.


They must have all jumped at the same time.


TIL that Kentucky has 2 million more barrels of bourbon aging than total population. (10/19/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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I know where I'm going in the apocalypse. "I heard, that Kentucky has an ocean of Bourbon... Oh and that there are no zombies there."


I'd imagine the bourbon is aging better than the populace.


And the barrels of bourbon don't keep voting for Mitch McConnell, so they're actually worth more than the population.


Given the opioid epidemic in KY, the total human population isn't aging much anymore either.


So, Kentucky's major products are coal, cigarettes, and alcohol? New nickname: Vice State


TIL that during pregnancy, the fetus can send stem cells across the placenta to which can repair damage to organs and tissues in cases of injury in the mother. (10/19/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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My wife read about this the other day and was like "I love being pregnant, I feel invincible!" and then she felt nauseous and had to excuse herself. Pregnancy is a rollercoaster


My genetics teacher taught us this Thought it was the coolest thing ever. I also wonder if this is the reason why Crohn's disease goes into remission during pregnancy (or at least thats what I've read)


So being pregnant is basically one of those super powers that comes at a cost.


Before pregnancy, I had a lot of digestive problems that I couldn’t figure out. Doctors shrugged their shoulders and said IBS? I tried cutting out various things, dairy, gluten, coffee, chocolate, etc. and nothing seemed to change. During (I’m not sure exactly when) and after pregnancy I had no digestive issues anymore, I then reincorporated the foods I had eliminated and I still had no digestive issues. I’m 2 years postpartum and I’m still good.


Well I just had to get my gallbladder removed due to pregnancy induced acute gallbladder disease. This baby had better throw some stem cells up there and help it regrow.