TIL that the Sony PlayStation was never meant to be a product. It was intended to be a new console that would play exclusively Nintendo games on CDs. Instead Nintendo backed out of the deal at the last minute. Sony went ahead and launched what would become the most successful console of all time. (12/12/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Perhaps the most bizarre part of this classic story is that the PlayStation actually thrived. 3DO failed, Sega CD failed, CD-i failed, Saturn. . . Struggled. But PlayStation, a console by that company who made your VCR and Discman, managed to get companies like Konami, Squaresoft and Namco to make exclusive games for them within the first year. How in the blazing fuck did Sony pull that off and manage to outsell their competitors who were seasoned veterans with huge followings?


Fun fact: Nintendo continued that CD-based game console with Phillips. The result was the CD-I, known for... pretty much nothing except the infamously bad Zelda CD-I games.


Nintendo gave Sony their word they were still together on the deal, but quietly was talking to Phillip's (which later became the CDI). Sony made the announcement they were partnering with Nintendo. Nintendo backed out and made Sony angry. They were going to scrap it until an employee (forget the name) suggested they do the system themselves. President of Sony was angry with Nintendo and basically said "Do it!". Playstation was born 🙂 EDIT: The CD-i was already out at this time. My mistake. 🙂


This is such a poorly worded fact. It wasn't intended to be a console, it was intended to be an addon for the SNES that would read CDs (similar to what the Genesis had with the Sega CD). And of course it was intended to be a product, just not a standalone one.


I remember my PlayStation. I was living in Manhattan with my then-girlfriend. I was paying rent and about 2/3 of the bills as she was working on her internship at a nearby recording studio so money was tight. I had been playing my beloved Sega Genesis for several years and was very much looking forward to the new Sega Saturn. Every account I'd read seemed to indicate that this was a real powerhouse of a gaming console and worth every penny of its ~$400 price tag. For several months I'd socked away a few dollars here and there until, finally, I had $500 in cash, enough for the console, one game, and sales tax. I had heard about the PlayStation, which is to say I knew *nothing* about it other than it existed and it was made by Sony. There was a toy store in Manhattan Mall; I think it was Toys-R-Us before they opened the flagship store in Times Square. I headed there on Saturday afternoon to pick up my Saturn. I got to the video game area and made a beeline for the Saturn kiosk. Kids of the day will remember the drill; you pull out a little slip of paper from a vinyl envelope, take it to the cashier, they ring you up, you pay, then you go to a pick-up area for your merchandise. I grabbed a slip of paper as I watched the demo of *Virtua Fighter*. Two things hit me almost at once: the graphics of *Virtua Fighter* really weren't that great, and although there were eight or nine people excitedly standing on the other side of the kiosk nobody was using the Saturn kiosk. I wandered to the other side of the kiosk and saw all these people riveted to a PlayStation kiosk, one of them playing *Ridge Racer*. Expecting something just marginally better than the Genesis, I took a spot in the back and peered over everyone's shoulders. It took me a few seconds to process what I was seeing. The graphics were *incredible*, head and shoulders above what I'd just seen of *Virtua Fighter*. Rich, vibrant colors. Clean animation. Great sound. Energetic music. Surely, I thought, the game play sucked. I waited my turn until, about a half hour after I got there, the others went away (and more people queued up behind me). As I grabbed the controller I noticed the PlayStation's price tag was $100 less than the Saturn's, which was even more of a shock. The controller felt good, and the action was very precise if not a little tight. If anything it was overly responsive. I finished the first lap in fourth place but by then I had a feel for the controls and finished the race in second place, just a car length behind first. I stepped away and went back to the Saturn kiosk. I looked at the available game titles on the wall display behind me and couldn't help but notice that there were even more titles for the PlayStation. I played *Virtua Fighter* and wasn't impressed; the controls seemed "disconnected" from the action. The demo disk inside the kiosk didn't have anything else that was playable, only video demos. I watched them all, every once in awhile being distracted by a cheer or some chatter from the PlayStation kiosk. I hung around there for another half hour or so, alternating between watching the PlayStation kiosk get a workout and looking at the Saturn kiosk as if it were an unfaithful girlfriend and I was searching for an excuse to keep her. I couldn't deny what was right in front of me. I put the paper ticket for the Saturn back into its little vinyl pouch, stepped around and picked out the next-to-last paper ticket for the PlayStation, as well as three games that had caught my eye. I never looked back. EDIT: Thanks for the gold, the silver, and the compliments! EDIT 2: And the Nice Santa!


TIL of ablaut reduplication, an unwritten English rule that makes “tick-tock” sound normal, but not “tock-tick”. When repeating words, the first vowel is always an I, then A or O. “Chit chat” not “chat chit”; “ping pong” not “pong ping”, etc. It’s unclear why this rule exists, but it’s never broken (12/11/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Here's a bunch of common examples, flop-flipped: - cross criss - dally dilly - faddle fiddle - hop hip - jabber jibber - Kong King - Mash mish - patter pitter - splash splish - zag zig


Who else is sitting here trying desperately to think of something that breaks the rule?


I wish I had space to make the title more precise: - This only applies when repeating words *in a phrase* (a.k.a. reduplication), not simply repeating a word ("Look! Look!"). - You can reduplicate without changing vowels, like "bye bye" or "choo choo". You can also do it by rhyming, like "razzle dazzle" or "lovey dovey". - But here's the rule: If you *do* change vowels, the first one *must* be an I. The next is either A or O. - If there are three words, the order is I, A, O. ("ding dang dong" not "dong dang ding") - **EDIT**: Sometimes it's not a literal I, but rather an EE (like "teeter totter" or "see saw"). I/EE are "high vowels", while A/O are "low vowels". High-low is the actual order. - Even the consonants don't need to be *exact* repetitions! They can just be similar (but with matching syllables & emphases). Like: "Tic Tac Toe" and "Bada-Bing, Bada-Boom".


The theory about why this rule exists involves the anatomical placement of vowel sounds. The rule is basically making it so that vowels always move from ~~back to front~~ front to back. Say "e" (as in email), "i" (as in igloo), "a" (as in apple), "uh" (as in umbrella), "ah" (as in auto), and "oh" (as in oatmeal), in that order. You'll notice that you feel the sounds moving from ~~the back of your throat to the front of your mouth~~ front to back. This is the prevailing theory for why reduplication works the way that it does in English. Edit: I had my words flipped. Thanks to another user for pointing that out. In linguistics, those vowels would be accurately described as front to back, because... Edit 2: As yet another user astutely pointed out, the terms *back* and *front* in phonetics refer to the placement of the tongue when forming vowel sounds. This is why it might seem to you that you're feeling some tightness in the *back* of your mouth when you say "e" as in "email," even though this is considered a *front vowel.* It's all about the placement of your tongue, which is toward the front when you make that sound.


English is my husband’s 4th language. He makes these mistakes occasionally and reverses compound words (pack back, instead of back pack). It’s endearing.


Australian school runs out of water as commercial trucks take local water to bottling plants for companies including Coca-Cola. “Now the government is buying water back from Coca-Cola to bring here, which is where it came from in the first place.” The future of privatized water is happening today. (12/12/2019) ~ Futurology

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Sick to fucking death of this country selling out natural resources to massive companies making billions and paying no fucking taxes. Boils my blood.


In Mumbai, people will soon be offered canned air. "With compliments: Perry-Air from one of France's most pristine landscapes."


That's why San Antonio didn't want Coke to build a plant here.


I’m a bit of a broken record on this but I feel like it’s important to point out whenever this sort of thing comes up. Especially for the younger folk. Today’s reality of privatized water was considered so insanely evil in 1978 that it was the subplot of Omen II. Which is to say that it was considered so evil that *only a company being secretly run by THE ACTUAL LITERAL DEVIL HIMSELF would come up with it.* And today we just take it for granted. But in the 70s someone was like “what’s so fucked up that an audience would believe Satan actually came up with it?” and they landed on Coke and Nestle’s actual modern day business plan. That’s a hell of a turn for society to take yet here we are.


Yeah I can't wait for this to become the norm for bigger towns, cities or even country's to have to fight these big corporations for their own natural resources 🙄 what a world we live in now...


TIL Titanic crew member William Murdoch who was portrayed as shooting a passenger and then commiting suicide in the movie, was in fact last seen trying to fill as many life boats as possible and heroically went down with the ship. (12/10/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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That movie portrayed a few of the crew as villains when infact they died helping passengers to safety. The studio settled one, if not more, defamation suits stemming from inaccurate portrayals.


The movie obviously portrayed some characters differently from history. J. Bruce Ismay was also portrayed in the movie as a coward during the sinking, jumping into a boat instead of staying on the ship to help out. In real life he helped numerous passengers into life boats, and was encouraged to get into one of the boats when space was available. As an employee of The White Star Line, but not a crew member, he was in no way expected to be on duty during the sinking. So while his actions before the ship set sail and during the voyage can be criticised, on the night of the sinking he actually helped a great many people.


It’s never been proven who, but multiple accounts have stated they saw an officer shoot themselves near collapsible lifeboat A, which was the last lifeboat to go into the water, and the lifeboat First Officer Murdoch was last seen at.


somebody should mod the movie, so the collision with the iceberg released a substantial amount of locked up zombies from the lower decks, and he was shooting at them.


I’d be mad af if a movie tried to play me as a villain when all I did was try and save people lol


TIL that, in 1954, Betty White was criticized for having Arthur Duncan, a black performer, on her show. When the show went national, affiliates from southern states complained and Betty said “I’m sorry. Live with it” and gave Duncan more airtime. The show was soon cancelled. (12/9/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Holy fuck she's 97?


Never change, you beautiful soul.


Fun fact : Despite being the oldest of the 'golden girls', Betty White has outlived her co-stars. > There is one episode (Sophia’s Choice: Season 4; episode 22) where the girls are discussing nursing homes and how they will all stick together so no one ends up at a terrible one (as Sophia’s friend had). > There’s one particularly poignant scene where they agree to always stay together and Rose (Betty White) says “What happens when there’s only one of us left?” and everyone is quiet. It always gives me goosebumps watching it, knowing that she will indeed be the only one left. It makes me feel quite melancholy until Sophia provides the comedic relief saying “Don’t worry! I can take care of myself!”. Golden Girls are a treasure. Betty White is simply magic.


Some facts about Betty White - Betty White holds the record for "longest television career of any female or male entertainer." - She is older than sliced bread. Betty White was born in 1922 and sliced bread was introduced in 1928. - She is older than Mickey Mouse. - In 2010, the Forest Service made Betty White an honorary forest ranger. White said in previous interviews that she wanted to be a forest ranger as a little girl but that women were not allowed to do that then. When White received the honor, more than 1/3 of Forest Service employees were women. To add some more perspective of her longevity. "1922 was a long time ago. A few months after she was born, the Lincoln Memorial was dedicated, the Ottoman Empire collapsed, and bouncing baby boys Kurt Vonnegut and Stan Lee were born."


Damn, seeing her picture in the thumbnail about gave me a heart attack before I could even read the title.


TIL a man from New Zealand memorized every french word in the french scrabble dictionary and won the French Scrabble Championship. He still doesn’t speak any french. (12/13/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Those damned New Zealanders, coming over here and taking our Scrabble titles!


I forgot to mention it took him 8 weeks to memorize it all.


>"Basically, what he does is, he looks at word lists and looks at dictionary pages... he can conjure up the image of what he has seen. He told me that if he actually hears a word, it doesn't stick in his brain. But if he sees it once, that's enough for him to recall the image of it. I don't know if that's a photographic memory; I just think it's something that his brain chemistry allows him to do." That's insane.


Just he remembered he also CORRECTED and challenged the spelling of his opponents. In a language he was not educated in.


In other news: he’s a total fuck machine, but no one will ever find out.


TIL a man in 2002 found a way to crack the lottery in the US state of Michigan using math and probability. He figured out that if he bought a certain amount of tickets that he would certainly make a profit. He and his wife Marge ended up making millions of dollars. (12/10/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Voltaire "won" the 1729 Paris municipal bond lottery by buying almost every single ticket*. Due to a calculation error, the total payout was greater than the cost of all the tickets combined. He earned something to the equivalent of of $121 million modern USD. ___ *The tickets were linked with the purchase of a municipal bond; however, they failed to link the value of the ticket to the value of the bond. So the guy who bought a 10 Franc bond and the guy who bought a 100 000 Franc bond would both be issued one ticket each and have equal chances of winning the jackpot. So the plan was to buy vast number of the cheapest bonds until Voltaire held the vast majority of all the lotto tickets issued, which would practically ensure him turning a profit.


He ended up making 3 million dollars in total. When the lottery of his home town shut down, he moved to another state and continued


Years ago, I thought I'd calculate every possible combination of the Hoosier Lottery. I wrote all the combinations to a text file, and quickly found out what happened when you ran out of disk space in Windows 98.


My math teacher was right!! I can use math in everyday life.


There’s a lady in Las Vegas who has won it 4 times buying tickets, I believe, in Texas. IIRC, she had a doctorate in statistics?


TIL in the 1988 box-office bomb “Mac and Me”, the wheelchair-bound lead child character was played by a real wheelchair-bound actor with spina bifida. In real life, when people asked why he was in a wheelchair, the 12-year-old would reply, “Vietnam.” (12/13/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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And that boy was.....Paul Rudd. True story.


This entire movie was a shameless McDonald's advertisement


I am surprised that xfinity could create a commercial re-uniting E.T. with Elliot, and no one has done the same for MAC and Eric. Not even Paul Rudd!


That headline. When he *tires* of answering questions... 80s news had all the puns.

sentorien have a clip of your new film, Antman, that you would like to show isn't going to really be the clip from Mac & Me, right? Right, Paul? You always do this every time you come on the show. ​ I promise it won't be that this time....


TIL The bezel on a dive watch only turns counterclockwise so that if the bezel is bumped accidentally during a dive it will only move in one direction, subtracting time from the dive and prompting the diver to surface early rather than staying under for too long. (12/11/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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I wonder if this was the first design or a reaction to a accident?


I use mine when cooking as a timer!


How exactly does the bezel work? I have no idea what it does beside spin around.


True for most diving watches, not true for all of them. Many vintage diving watches, and some older models still made today, use a simpler friction bezel. Vostok is an obvious example of a friction bezel you can still find very easily, and the earliest Rolex bezels were bidirectional from what I remember. Some also use a bidirectional locking bezel, like the Omega "Ploprof"


So I need a different watch for diving in the southern hemisphere?


TIL of Albert Hofmann, who synthesized LSD. On 16 April 1943, he accidentally consumed some LSD and discovered its powerful effects. Three days later, he intentionally ingested 0.25 mg of LSD, whose effects he began to feel as he rode home on a bike. This was the first LSD trip. (12/14/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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>Hofmann continued to take small doses of LSD throughout much of his life. He died 65 years later, at the age of 102. That trip must've been some intense shit eh?


Bicycle day


250 micrograms is a pretty hefty, full-blown trip dose. Imagine if by accident the first trip ever had been a heroic ego-shattering-and-then-some dose of 700 micrograms or more, not knowing what is happening, how long it's going to last, what the side effects might be, if any of it could be permanent... *shudder*.


This dude was tripping on acid in Switzerland during WWII


People have been eating moldy bread with lsd analogs since the ancient Greeks. This would make you trip slightly but also made you violently ill for a few days too. So this was probably the first high quality “holy shit grab your balls and don’t let go” kind of trip.


TIL that an Iraqi man slept through the invasion of his town after it was attacked by militants. He was the only person left behind the when the town was evacuated. He woke up, watched a movie and fiddled with his A/C, only noticing the takeover that evening. The militants left him alone. (12/8/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Militants were like “this guy’s crazy enough to stay behind? Best leave him alone”


“Let him sleep, it’ll be funny when he wakes up and everyone is gone.”


I had a sketchy apartment that used to get up to all kinds of nonsense. While I was home for the weekend there was a party, the cops were called. When the cops burst in, one of my roommates ran into his room and pulled out his checkbook and pretended to be doing bills. When the cops opened his door he acted totally annoyed and busy. The cops turned around and left him alone. They took everyone else's identification.


Quite possibly the most relatable thing I've ever read.


"WE ARE IN CONTROL OF THIS LAND NOW" "....... mmmmkay ..... Hey you got any smokes?"


Three months after his bone marrow transplant, a man learned that the DNA in his blood had all been replaced by the DNA of his donor. Four years after his lifesaving procedure, all of the DNA in his semen belonged to his donor. The case implications for future transplants and forensic science. (12/9/2019) ~ Futurology

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If I remember right another article stated his *semen* was a different DNA, not sperm. His swimmers would still be his own, just swimming in another dudes juice.


LPT: Clone yourself by becoming a bone marrow transplant donor.


This sounds like the basis for a really good Law & Order episode.


Very interesting as this will have consequences. For example if that person has kids, who is the father?


So if all the DNA changes to the donors DNA, wouldn't they change over time to look like the donor; hair, eye color, skin tone? This is fascinating stuff.


TIL the State of Washington once forced Comcast to refund nearly 50,000 customers for charging them a $5/month “service protection plan” that actually did nothing. (12/10/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Comcast reps failed to come to my new home three times to set up new equipment for me. They told me to hold onto my old equipment and the reps would take it, so I had their old equipment the whole time, which was unusable. Eventually, I brought it back and they refused to waive my fees that I owed them because I had it the whole time. They also deleted all records of my conversations with them so they couldn’t waive the fees because there was no proof I had tried to get reps to my home to set up new equipment. I refuse to pay them a dime, they’re fucking thieves


Minneapolis is getting Fiber in some areas by a little suburban ISP. They've got something like up to150mbps in some areas that don't have fiber yet for like $40/month. It's not about the fact that in 3 years of living in this apartment that we've never had a total outage. The only time it happened was when the router died. It's not that it's 1/3 the cost of Comcast and I don't have some fucknut trying to sell me home phone and cable bundles. It's not that they have a service person pick up the actual goddamn phone instead of forcing me to deal with 30 minutes of an automated shit storm that can't understand "give me a fucking representative!!" It's because fuck you Comcast, that's why.


>The $9.1 million fine Comcast was ordered to pay is a fraction of the amount sought by Washington. But Comcast's refunds to customers are separate from the fine, and it's not clear exactly how much they'll amount to. >The AG announcement said: >>*The court found that Comcast added the SPP to the accounts of 30,946 Washingtonians without their knowledge, and did not tell an additional 18,660 Washingtonians the true cost of the plan. The court ordered Comcast to refund affected consumers, and pay 12 percent interest on the restitution. The amount of restitution is unknown at this time, but is expected to be significant. The court ordered Comcast to issue the refunds within 60 days and report to the state on the specific details and amounts.* When I moved into my new apartment, I looked up my internet providers to see what I could get. Only fucking option was Comcast. The sacrifices one makes


> Moreover, Washington state attorneys said that Comcast led customers to believe that they needed to buy a Service Protection Plan (SPP) to get services that were actually covered for free by the company's "Customer Guarantee." This is the sleaziest part of this whole thing to me. Putting a price tag on something that you already offer for free and just trusting the person you're selling it to not to check. Disgusting.


How is this fair? All this is saying is steal from people until you get caught, when you just have to pay back what you stole. It should be "a life for an eye". A suitable punishment should be 1000x the amount stolen. The punishment should be so extraordinary punitive that companies would likely die for nearly any major infraction. That is the most fair way to balance the inequality in bargaining.


TIL Simpsons creator Matt Groening said he was the fan of Beavis and Butthead, because the show largely took “the heat off Bart Simpson being responsible for the downfall of western civilization.” (12/13/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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I still don't get it how people could believe B&B were meant to be role models. Pretty much every episode makes it clear they're the dumbest losers around.


And the original downfall was Denis the Menace. There always will be some character that gets pinned as the downfall of everything.


Mike Judge created Beavis and Butthead to show what would happen if two teenage kids watched Music Videos all day: they would turn into dumb, moronic, losers. And it played on MTV, which was awesome. Edit: Epstein didn't kill himself.


The Simpsons weren’t even that outrageous, it’s just that the 80s were that conservative.


The Simpsons is so benign and good-natured compared to all the other adult animations


TIL it wasn’t a single drug discovery that stopped people from dying of AIDS in the 1990s but the discovery that combining several drugs would each affect a different aspect of HIV and together force the virus into undetectable remission, called the “AIDS cocktail” (12/9/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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I lived in the Castro neighborhood of San Francisco from 1996-1998. At the time it was the gayest neighborhood in SF. I'll never forget filling a prescription at the walgreens and seeing rows and rows of full sized brown paper grocery bags lined up behind the pharmacy counter with a stack of prescription instructions stapled to each bag. I asked one day and was told each bag contained the monthly meds for a single AIDS patient. Those cocktails meant that a patient was taking handfuls of drugs several times a day. Made me very sad to see those bags but hopeful that these people would live and it would be cured some day.


"Doctor, we've tried everything! Nothing works" "But have you tried everything... At once" :O


AIDS cocktail: Shaken not stirred.


>In 1995, a combination drug treatment known as the “AIDS cocktail” was introduced. This type of therapy is now known as highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). It’s also called combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) or simply antiretroviral therapy (ART). >Regardless of its name, HAART has led to dramatic improvements in people who have used it. People have experienced decreased viral loads (the amount of HIV in their body) and increased counts of CD4 cells (immune cells that are destroyed by HIV). >According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, people who take antiretroviral therapy as prescribed and maintain an undetectable viral load have “effectively no risk” of transmitting HIV to others. And here I was thinking it was only curable with roughly $250,000 of liquified cash being injected into your veins.


Yep. Many first world countries have over 21 drugs that can be combined in different ways to suit the individual as some combinations can make you very sick. Many 3rd world countries don’t have that access and people with HIV are forced to take the cocktail regardless of how sick it makes them. I met a woman living with HIV who said she would throw up her medication and dig through her vomit to find the pills and take them again.


Elon Musk revives his plan to power the United States entirely on solar: “All you need is a 100 by 100 mile patch in a deserted corner of Arizona, Texas or Utah (or anywhere) to more than power the entire USA.” (12/10/2019) ~ Futurology

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I think everyone is getting a little caught up in the 100x100 mile part. That’s likely purely so people can visualize scale. It’s big but it’s not so big that it could never happen.


**Elongated Muskrat:** You just need 100x100mi of solar to power the US - That's not even that much **Reddit hears:** He said you need exactly 100x100mi patch of land with solar panels, no batteries, no other forms of redundant power, and it all MUST be centralized in that 100sqmi patch You fuckers need to learn what EXAMPLES are. This EXAMPLE he gave is to give you an idea of the amount of materials needed. It's not a functioning plan. If you were gonna have a party, and everyone is eating hot dogs, you gotta figure out how many hot dogs you need. So you do some math and figure out you need 100 hot dogs just to be safe. So you're like "Hey Bobby, go get me 100 hot dogs" Then Bobby starts saying a lot of dumb shit like: "How you gonna even cook 100 hot dogs all at once? You'd need like a grill the size of your living room or an industrial kitchen sized boiling pot, or like 20 of those rotating hot dog cookers" and you just want to slap Bobby upside the head because no one said you're making all 100 hot dogs at once, that dumb piece of shit just made it up in his head and ran with it. You're Bobby Reddit, STOP BEING BOBBY


Can someone cross post this to R/`Australia. Because we got the space and the heat!! But our PM is owned by thE coal industry and Rupert!


Let’s do it! Or why not 25%, or 50% of the energy supply and then if it makes sense they can build up to 100% over time?


How much empty roof top area does the US have right now?


TIL in 346BC, Alexander the Great, at the age of 10, after taming a large anxious horse he was allowed to buy it. He named the horse “Bucephalas”, and he rode the horse until the Battle or Hydapes in 326BC when it died at the age of 30. Alexander later named a city after his steed. (12/12/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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>Plutarch says in 344 BC, at twelve or thirteen years of age, Alexander of Macedonia won the horse by making a wager with his father: A horse dealer named Philonicus the Thessalian offered Bucephalus to King Philip II for the remarkably high sum of 13 talents (approximately $182,000 in 2017 dollars). Because no one could tame the animal, Philip was not interested. However, Alexander was, and he offered to pay himself should he fail. >Alexander was given a chance and surprised all by subduing it. He spoke soothingly to the horse and turned it toward the sun so that it could no longer see its own shadow, which had been the cause of its distress. Dropping his fluttering cloak as well, Alexander successfully tamed the horse. Plutarch says that the incident so impressed Philip that he told the boy, "O my son, look thee out a kingdom equal to and worthy of thyself, for Macedonia is too little for thee." I too have made bets with my dad where he thought my dumbass would get killed. But I didn't, I just almost got killed and learned a lesson in the process, so take that dad


Bucephala was the name of the character Bob Belcher cosplayed as in the Equestronauts episode of Bob's Burgers. His pony name was Bob-cephala.


And that city? Horsey McHorsetown


Fun fact, Bucephalus means big head. (Ox head)


Also the name of Ozymandias' horse in Watchmen (the series)


California celebrates 1 million solar roofs – Arnold Schwarzenegger: “13 years ago, we set a huge goal: to build a million solar roofs in our state by 2019… Today, we celebrate the vision and the hardworking Californians that made a million solar roofs a reality.” (12/13/2019) ~ Futurology

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>The initiative’s goal was to build 3 gigawatts of rooftop solar throughout the state. The program met its goal in 2015, ahead of schedule, and the market has continued to grow. Today, California consumers have installed nearly 9 gigawatts of local solar energy That's some serious shit.


Cool, now can some politicians please stop the California energy companies from raising their prices which they are using to offset their profit losses due to solar? SoCal has some of the highest solar production rates with excess energy going to other states and yet we pay the highest electricity rates in the continental USA.


His statement was in my voice until I got to “California” then it was Arnold’s voice in my head.


Good thing about having a solar roof is if you add a battery to your system you can have power all through the night when they blackout your area when it gets too windy


Am I the only one bothered by the "1" balloon facing the wrong way?


TIL because of the vastness of the deep ocean, when a male and female anglerfish mate their bodies fuse into one. The male’s now useless body parts like eyes and fins wither away. He spends the rest of his life attached to her like a parasite, taking food and providing her with babies. (12/12/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Yeah, it's uh, because of the vastness. He can move out any time, but it's just the vastness!


>For deep-sea ceratioids that might only rarely bump into each other in the abyss, though, the weird mating ritual is a necessary adaptation to keep mates close at hand and ensure that there will always be more little anglerfish. Obviously sexual selection doesn't play a part in anglerfish evolution. They gotta take and keep whatever they can get.


To understand the woman, you must become one with her.


I’ve met human couples that are like that.


Doesn't matter. Had sex.


TIL that the majority of Americans teenagers are still virgins by the time they hit eighteen, and the number using birth control has increased over time. (12/10/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Meh. In the 90's, we would just lie about having sex. Not me, of course. My girlfriend didn't go to my school. You wouldn't know her


Coincidentally, Reddit is an extremely effective method of birth control


Teenage pregnancies drop off sharply after 19.


Freaking losers. I totally lost my vcard to a smokin hot chick at summer camp when I was 14. She lives in Canada, though, and doesn't have social media. But she's probably the hottest girl I've ever seen. Totally not a virgin.


All media organizations, especially ones posting data and advice, should take note of the disclaimer at the top of this article: >Please note: This article was published more than one year ago. The facts and conclusions presented may have since changed and may no longer be accurate. And "More information" links may no longer work. Questions about personal health should always be referred to a physician or other health care professional. I love how responsible this is as a policy. Too often I see people sharing articles they treat as new news that is more than 5 years old. They Google around until they find something that fits their thesis and then completely ignore the dateline. Edit: Since some of you think I mean *this* study is somehow wrong, that's not my point. This article is only two years old. Demographic changes don't typically happen quickly so the information is probably still relevant, especially if there hasn't been a newer study of the same quality done in the interim. What I like is the *reminder* that this is older information and that it's *possible* that it's not current. This should be at the top of every article like this.


TIL That in 1991 Paul Reubens (Pee Wee Herman) was arrested by undercover detectives in Sarisota Florida for indecent exposure at a porn theater. Pee Wee made an appearance at the 1991 MTV VMAs and received a standing ovation after asking the audience, “Heard any good jokes lately?” (12/8/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Seems like a pretty mild offence compared to what’s going on these days.


Meanwhile at the Emmys a few months later, Gilbert Gottfried said, " “If masturbation is a crime, I should be on death row. If masturbation is against the law, I should’ve been sent to the electric chair years ago.” People went apeshit.


TIL that the PeeWee scandal is no longer common knowledge


This was the dumbest scandal ever. That's what you do in a porn theater. Who gives a flying fuck.


He was acquitted on all charges. The evidence wouldn't stand up in court.


TIL bathing was common in the Middle Ages and people understood the importance of being clean. (12/11/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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That explains why there were not many Smash tournaments back then.


>Medieval writers saw bathing as a serious and careful activity. One medical treatise, the Secreta Secretorum, has an enitre section on baths. It notes that the spring and winter are good times for bathing, but it should be avoided as much as possible in the summer. It also warns that excessively long baths lead to fatness and feebleness. Meanwhile, Magninius Mediolanesis offers over 57 bathing prescriptions to use in specific conditions, like old age, pregnancy and travelling and his rules for bathing run 1500 words long. >Some famous bathing sites had their own rules. In 1336, Pietro de Tussignano formulated twelve rules for those coming to the Italian town at Burmi, which lies near Switzerland, to get the healing effects of its bath. They include that the person should beforehand not to have too much sexual intercourse nor have abstained from it, and that he should also enter the bath with an empty stomach (if they had to have food it could only be two spoons of raisins with a little wine). You could only pour the water over your head if you were clean-shaven, otherwise your hairs might impede the effects of the water. The person should take the baths for fifteen days, spending up to an hour a day getting washed, but if all goes well, the bather will benefit for over six months with improved health. Medieval times had more hygiene standards than your average anime con


Particularly, Muslims and Norse were very clean. In fact, in border areas a number of texts basically call them clean pretty boys, who will steal all the women! Germ theory might not have been around, but noses know. And well, frankly women did actually like clean men more, for obvious reasons. I'll see if I can find some of my books from last year, My first 3 college semesters were all studying under a medieval historian specializing in Muslim Spain. Fascinating stuff.


And they were constantly cleaning and changing their linen underclothes.


Women dont like stinky dudes ~~ dudes learn the importance of bathing


TIL after a Taliban fighter successfully shot down an American CH-47D Chinook, he bragged about it over his radio. Signals Intelligence was able to determine who had made the call and after only 2 days, an F-16, a C-130, and two Apache Gunships killed him and 5 others using their combined firepower. (12/12/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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“I wasn’t sure how many military aircraft it would take to kill me but I was pretty sure how many they were going to use.”


>Meanwhile, the group of Taliban fighters split in twain. Don't often see "in twain". Wiki editor must have been buzzing typing that out.


It took an F-16, a C-130, and two Apache Gunships to kill 6 people? Your tax dollars at work, America.


I think one Apache would have done the job, but what do I know I had an admin job when I served.


So.. A $100 dollar rebel first shot down a $30,000,000 helicopter, then made the US send a $100,000,000 force (exluding soldiers and ammo) to boot. Impressive.. *Both ways*..


TIL that white mushrooms, cremini mushrooms, and portobello mushrooms are all the same mushroom but at different stages of growth. (12/11/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Try working in a fruit and veg shop and arguing with 20 Karens a day that Cilantro is Coriander, corgette is zuccini, aubergine is eggplant, romaine is cos lettuce, and large white mushrooms are portobello...most of the time they walk away not believing me


Green olives are unripened black olives, and red bell peppers are ripened green bell peppers.


Spoiler alert. Veal and Beef are the same animal, just at different stages of growth!


This is what I tell people who "dont like mushrooms". I used to be one of them. But then I discovered morels, chanterelles, porcinis, lions manes, truffles, and the list goes on and on. The textures and flavors vary from soft to tough, savory to nutty, and light to strong. Assuming you don't like mushrooms after trying just one lame type is like assuming you don't like any fruits after trying only apples. There's such a variety out there and so many unique flavors. They're worth exploring imo.


Oh, we're doing this again? Chipotles are just smoked jalapeños; there are a lot of other peppers that are just smoked or cured versions of other, fresh peppers that I don't recall just this second. This may not be as big of a surprise, but nectarines are just a variety of peach bred to not have fuzz, not a separate species. They and apricots are more closely related to almonds than other fruits, most of which are berries while they (drupes) are not. Apples, pears, peppers, tomatoes, most melons and some gourds are all berries. Strawberries ~~and citrus~~ aren't, though. Broccoli, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, green cabbage, cale, & collard greens are all the exact same species of plant, and Kale is closest to its natural form. Broccoli specifically is the flower bud stage of the plant grown all out of proportion. EDIT: OKAY, FOR CHRIST'S SAKE I GET IT! There's disagreement on exactly which pomes are berries or not, beyond me and anyone else in this discussion. YOU DON'T NEED TO ADD ANOTHER REPLY TO THE 10,000 ALREADY TELLING ME YOU THINK I'M WRONG. I hate that about Reddit sometimes. Can't bother to read the discussion but can always chime in to add another "you're wrong" post to the pile. It's even worse in cases like this where it isn't clear in the first place. Jeez.


Futurist sees ‘the end of the world as we know it for average person’: Roey Tzezana says middle-class jobs will vanish, polarization between rich and poor will grow – and it will happen faster than you think (12/8/2019) ~ Futurology

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Part 1: **Futurist Sees ‘The End of the World as We Know It for Average Person’** *Israeli Roey Tzezana says middle-class jobs will vanish, polarization between rich and poor will grow – and it will happen faster than you think* *Sivan Klingbail | Dec 06, 2019 2:06 AM* In Providence, Rhode Island where Dr. Roey Tzezana now lives, signs on the street advertise “Rent a Son.” The signs are put up by people offering services that a son is supposed to do for his parents: shovel the snow, hang pictures and come for a visit. Someone looking in from the outside might think that this is a brilliant initiative – after all, the population is aging and many of the elderly live alone. Why be just a handyman if you can be a son for rent? But Tzezana, an Israeli “future studies” researcher, who studies the job markets of the years to come, too, sees the signs as a glimpse into the future. Tzezana, a researcher at the Blavatnik Interdisciplinary Cyber Research Center of Tel Aviv University, and a research fellow at the Humanity Centered Robotics Initiative of Brown University, says such services are exactly the jobs that those who can’t find a place in technological professions will be forced into – and some are being forced into them now. This forecast is not good news for most people: The polarization in the job market will only grow and the inequality between those who buy the new smart machines, those who build them, and those who cannot – will only widen. In an interview with TheMarker, Tzezana sets aside all the most recent reports, such as that of the World Economic Forum, which shows that in addition to the forecasts of millions of jobs being eliminated, new jobs are created too – because this, he says, is simply the wrong debate. “The deeper and more interesting questions are not whether new jobs will be created, but what is the pace that old jobs disappear and new jobs open up, or what is the pace at which the tasks the jobs require change and create a demand for new expertise, specializations and skills. The speed of closing tasks and opening new tasks is changing, and it is overwhelming,” he says. “All the reports of the McKinsey consulting firm talk about technological progress requiring ‘up skills’ and the ability to adapt; a view that is possible to develop, learn and grow and a way of thinking of an entrepreneur – all the time looking for opportunities. All these are wonderful slogans that the large international consulting companies spread and there is a reason for it – the profile of the employees in these organizations is that of young workers who learn all the time,” says Tzezana. But he points out that the researchers who are happy to talk about adopting new capabilities, lifelong learning and all sorts of other buzzwords that are heard everywhere – do not ask themselves whether it is appropriate for everyone. **Over the hill** Many already recognize the reality that Tzezana is describing: “We aren’t talking about a 45-year-old employee who lost a job and no one want his skills. Certainly there are people who can learn new things at any age. But how many of these people are there? Most of those in their 50s are sure they know and think they deserve to enjoy the fruits of their efforts and the seeds they sowed – that experience has value.” Recently the Boston Consulting Group released a report on global trends in future jobs and found that the jobs of the future are ones such as waiting on tables, cleaning, child care and nursing care – and the groups of job skills with the highest rate of growth after digital skills is social services and education. BCG analyzed millions of job ads over three years and found that some professions have a high growth rate without being related to digital skills, such as child care, animal care, fitness training and behavioral analysis skills, “are all related to the growing pursuit of general well-being and leisure.” But if you ask Tzezana, this is part of the problem. “We see large polarization of the job market, in other words a continuing rise in polarization,” he says, mentioning what Andrew Haldane, the chief economist at the Bank of England, said back in 2015. Even though technology has created many new jobs in recent centuries, at the same time it has led to polarization too, those with jobs requiring expertise, preferably in the exact sciences, have higher wages, while those who make do with a lower level of expertise receive lower pay. This is a result of the continual inflow of professionals in the middle whose jobs are disappearing because of automation – those with a medium level of expertise. Haldane asks, justifiably, whether we want to become a society with extreme inequality with a small number of super-rich and a great number of poor, which we are already seeing in the United States, says Tzezana. We are seeing people moving from the middle class, for example manufacturing workers whose factories closed down because the work moved to China. Now factories are returning to the United States, and this doesn’t help anyone because they are automated, he says. A factory that in the past employed 1,000 workers needs only 100 today. Those with high-level skills know how to operate the machines that replace the workers, but the workers who in the past were responsible for the machines or who did the same task as the machines need to find a new job. “They are going to work in services – for Uber or renting out apartments,” says Tzezana. *So this is entrepreneurship, creativity? An excellent example of the entrepreneurial spirit, no?* “The salary of someone who moves into the service professions drops dramatically – sometimes a quarter of the previous salary, and this is not the problem of just one or two people,” says Tzezana. “When a lot of people experience this drop, we are talking about an economic crisis: It is not just a problem only for those who can’t pay their mortgages. Sixty percent of the sales of most companies are to the general public and if the public can’t afford to buy a new computer, the entire economy enters a crisis.” ​ ... part 2 below


How long can the rich stay rich without average people being able to afford rent, housing, consumption ?


Want to continue reading? Sing up and fi.... Oh hell nah.


The idea that the lower classes will reassert an obvious truth, if the upper classes think the poor have no right to live than the upper classes don't have the right to rule, will happen is too alien for these alleged futurists. The only class change they can ever imagine is one where the status quo is only further entrenched. No apocalyptic future prediction ever threatens the existing interests of the already powerful.


"It is easier to imagine an end to the world than an end to capitalism. "


TIL it’s a 50+ year old tradition in Sweden to watch a specific Donald Duck cartoon at exactly 3pm on Christmas Eve. Approximately half the country tunes in to watch every year. (12/14/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Wait, so everyone watches a Donald Duck cartoon on Christmas Eve and it’s NOT the one where Chip and Dale fuck up his Christmas tree?!? Or at least the one where Huey, Dewey, and Louie have the epic snowball fight and Donald goes apeshit! How is this even possible?!?


In Germany we watch Dinner for One on Silvester (New Years). It's a short sketch by british comedians that no one in britain knows.


> ... You do not tape or DVR Kalle Anka for later viewing. You do not eat or prepare dinner while watching Kalle Anka. Age does not matter - every member of the family is expected to sit quietly together and watch... It's almost transitioned from tradition, to religious, almost cult-like.


You should check out the ‘Dinner for one’ phenomenon too. It’s a short play that is watched across Europe, Australia and parts of Africa. It’s in English, but unknown in the UK. ‘Same procedure as last year Miss Sophie?’


It's pretty annoying, one moment you're having a drink and talking with your siblings which you haven't had a proper opertunity to meet for a couple of months. Suddenly some some family members starts harassing you about watching the cartoon duck on the tellie.


The world’s first 3D-printed neighborhood now has its first houses – A giant 3D printer is currently squeezing out new homes in rural Mexico. Each one takes 24 hours and lets local families upgrade from a shack to a two-bedroom house. Could this be part of the global housing solution? (12/11/2019) ~ Futurology

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I’m glad I have lived to see this technology put to good use.


Fascinating - it mentions in the article that the houses are capable of withstanding seismic shocks which is a bit of a surprise since unreinforced cement and concrete buildings tend to fail catastrophically during earthquakes. Any civil engineers around who are able to suggest how they could make a seismically-safe house without using rebar?


Individual homes is never going to the solution to housing crisis. You need to stack people in spacious flat in cities designed around pedestrian life with enough public transportation to web the area.


Would love to see a speeded up video of this thing in action.


The article states it's cheaper and quicker to 3D print the homes but it fails to mention how much it costs vs. the traditional way. Also, the printing takes 24 hours; however, they need to come back and finish the house with roofs, windows, and interiors; so what's the total time?


TIL General anesthesia is not simply a deep sleep. EEG (electroencephalography) readings, show that even the deepest sleep is not as deep as the lightest general anesthesia. General anesthesia EEG patterns are most similar to a comatose brain. General anesthesia is essentially a “reversible coma.” (12/9/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Good. Because a deep sleep is certainly not going to be enough to do the trick if there’s a knife in my organs


General anesthesia is a trip. I've had two surgeries this year and it's like you close your eyes and the next moment you are in the recovery room. Hours have passed and it feels like a second. The first one I had they didnt even give me a warning and when I woke up I was so confused.


Having undergone general anesthesia a few times, I can confirm that it is NOT like sleeping. It's like dying. You have no recollection of the time when you're under and you have a second or two of realization that it's happening and then you're waking up several days later and you hurt like hell. Literally, like an off-switch.


I just had my 14th surgery with GA. Same experience each time for me. Put on the party hat, get the relaxing margarita in the IV and get wheeled into the freezing OR. Hop tables, start to get strapped down, notice what music is playing, and then breathe deeply through the big oxygen mask. Lights out. Only differences I've noticed are when and where I remember waking up. Once I vaguely remember coughing and being extubated, a couple of times I remember waking in the OR as I was being wheeled out (but super groggy and fell back asleep), and this last time (literally last Monday) I can't for the life of me remember much about waking up at all? I pretty much remember eating a lorna doone cookie and my husband helping me get dressed and wheeled down to the car. Fyi, this final surgery was my last step in beating stage 3 breast cancer. Woohoo!


How much anesthesia do I need to get through this work week?


A self-driving truck delivered butter from California to Pennsylvania in three days – Cupertino-based announces what’s believed to be an industry first (12/10/2019) ~ Futurology

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Show Top Comments *What is my purpose?* Human: "You transport butter"


As a Pennsylvanian, we grow butter here. There are lots of butter farms. Do we really need Californian butter?


I wonder if vehicle automation will bring back full service gas stations. Or maybe electric vehicles will get to a point where that's unnecessary.


How good for us - everything gets cheaper! I'm feeling for the 3.7 million truck drivers in the US, not to mention those all around the world.


Please tell me it was one single peace of butter put in the middle of the trailer. If it was not, these testers have no sense of humor.


TIL a golden chamber buried under a mountain in Japan contains water so pure it can dissolve metal, and it’s helping scientists detect dying stars (12/8/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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This seems like a headline made by a neural network. I'm not complaining about it, it just seems so nonsensical at first glance with lots of seemingly unconnected words/terms. Other headlines made by HeadlineBot: DAE Think black kittens with extra toes can eat more beetles, resulting in worldwide natural and historic disasters? MFW This tree I found hidden underground is actually not the type of diamond most scientists in your area are commonly known for and the gas it produces can power more than 15 standard size houses.


"water so pure it can dissolve metal" - which metals? How impure does water have to be before it will stop being able to "dissolve metal"? Do metals even dissolve in water, or do they react to form salts which then dissolve? I have many questions


Water? You mean, like, in the toilet?


Can someone smart explain to me if this is true and how it is possible? "The enormous tank is filled with 50,000 tonnes of ultra-pure water. This is because when travelling through water, neutrinos are faster than light. So when a neutrino travels through water, "it will produce light in the same way that Concord used to produce sonic booms," said Dr Uchida." Edit: ty for the answers. tldr: It is faster than light in water, versus the light in the water, which is slower than the speed of light in a vacuum.


Water already "dissolves" metal... it doesn't have to be ultra-pure. If the chamber is gold, doesn't that mean the gold is being dissolved into the water, seeing as it's metal?


TIL Disney was planning to buy Twitter but then decided to cancel the deal because of the “nastiness” on the social media platform. (12/10/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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It's not nastiness *on* the platform, as if the content is separate from the medium. The platform itself is structurally designed to foster nastiness, pettiness, hot takes, 'dunking', bragging, and pretty much every other negative psychological behavior. I mean, I doubt that was the *intent* of the designers. But nonetheless, that's the platform they built.


They should have bought it and then shut it down.


Also the fact that at least 15% of users are bots and those bots tweet a fuck ton, 66% of all links, etc. How much value do you attribute to the ‘real’ traffic, other than that is a crap ad service to other bots


Yeah. Like how they swarm people to try and destroy their lives over some stupid comment from a decade ago. Even if they were 16 at the time and are now just trying to raise money for charity. Or how they knowingly weaponize their lynch mob followers in a twisted ploy to boost their Patreon subscribers. Or how mentally unstable adults bully a child because they don’t like the picture they drew? Or the hot takes from blue checkmarks that misrepresent the views of someone who disagrees with them and then blocks them so the offended party can’t defend themselves. Or all the public death threats from accounts that Twitter refuses to delete despite doing it for others because the former seemingly has agreeable politics. This coming from a staunch liberal and Democrat, by the way. The former group tarnishes me with their constant hatred and hypocrisy. I’m really not thrilled about that. Twitter is a cesspool. I’m glad I never signed up for it.


When *Disney* wants nothing to do with you, that speaks volumes.


ELI5: Why do vocal harmonies of older songs sound have that rich, “airy” quality that doesn’t seem to appear in modern music? (Crosby Stills and Nash, Simon and Garfunkel, et Al) (12/10/2019) ~ Explain Like I'm Five

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I see a lot of good info, but I didnt see anyone talk about this. When people sing in the same room the vibrations of their voices actually affect each other. When perfect harmonies are sung there are natural overtones created by the stacking of the sound waves. When voices are autotuned or electronically harmonized you are actually missing a lot of frequencies that natural harmonization would have, making the newer stuff sound flat and robotic.


Check out a documentary called The Harmony Game. In it, the producer of many Simon and Garfunkel classics details his vocal recording and mixing style which basically amounts to having each vocal recorded and doubled individually and then both vocals on one mic giving the mixer several tracks to pan and balance.


They loved doubling up vocals back then, as in you have the same vocal track repeated a fraction of a second later. John Lennon is doubled up on nearly all of his songs. They'd do this with harmonies as well - each vocal onto a single track and then doubled up. That's a lot of vocal going on at once, with sounds overlapping and interfering with each other, giving it that swirling shimmery sound. What I also notice about the example you posted is that every vocal harmony is at a similar level, as if you're listening to a group of singers in a room. Modern music tends to go with the lead vocalist pushed to front, and backing singers for the harmonies, pushed further back in the mix. Any kind of commercial music is competing in a kind of arms race of sound, attempting to stand out. Producers come up with a trick that makes their song sound bigger, then pretty soon everyone's doing it. Vocal doubling was one of those tricks. As we move into the 80s, the backing track becomes more of a focus. There's only so much you can do with vocals, but instruments and production techniques are changing all the time.


Part of it might have to do with the loudness war and songs being mastered for shitty audio gear now days. The loudness war is artist wanting their music to be mastered louder and louder, which results in less fidelity in the song because its all kinda jammed up there rather than using the full spectrum.


Overdubbing was common even in this era; in fact, the effect here is produced by multitracking, a form of overdubbing in which multiple takes of the same part by the same vocalist(s) are overlaid and bounced to a new track. What you were told about acoustic disturbance isn't totally inaccurate, as the perceived effect itself comes from the constructive & destructive interference of the overlaid waveforms, but this doesn't require that they interact in the air, which you can test for yourself just by graphing any two simple waveforms and then graphing their sum. The same waveform summed with itself will produce the same waveform but with twice the amplitude/volume (1+1=2 (constructive)), while a waveform summed with its inverse will produce silence (-1+1=0 (destructive)). Where no two takes of a part will ever be identical, the multiple waveforms interact with one another in such a way as to create a complex pattern of interference, reinforcing & attenuating certain frequencies in a non-fixed way, which we perceive as this 'airy' quality you describe, and which cannot be produced quite the same just by processing the signal with a unison or chorus effect as is common today.


TIL American soldiers in the Pacific theater of WW2 always used passwords containing the letter ‘L’ due to Japanese mispronunciation, a word such as lollapalooza would be used and upon hearing the first two syllables come back as ‘rorra’ would “open fire without waiting to hear the rest”. (12/12/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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TIL being an infantryman with a speech impediment was more dangerous than being a paratrooper or a ball turret gunner.


I've been told that in the European Theatre, US troops would use passphrases such as "Roy Rogers rode a red roan", which would reveal any Teutonic ESL types in a hurry. The Swedes have one: " Sjutusensjuhundrasjuttiosju sjösjuka sjömän ." In English it's, "Seven thousand seven hundred and seventy seven seasick sailors", but Swedes can smell a non-native speaker a mile away with that one.


Scooby-doo would have been so screwed


>During World War II, some United States soldiers in the Pacific theater used the word lollapalooza as a shibboleth to challenge unidentified persons, on the premise that Japanese people often pronounce the letter L as R or confuse Rs with Ls. In Oliver Gramling's Free Men are Fighting: The Story of World War II (1942) the author notes that, in the war, Japanese spies would often approach checkpoints posing as American or Filipino military personnel. A shibboleth such as "lollapalooza" would be used by the sentry, who, if the first two syllables come back as rorra, would "open fire without waiting to hear the remainder". >During the Allied breakout from the Normandy beachheads in 1944, hand-to-hand fighting occurred throughout the hedgerows and thick undergrowth of the Norman countryside. British and American troops were told to use the word "Thunderer" as a countersign through the thick foliage. Given the number of syllables and the leading "th" sound, it was believed that the word would invariably be mispronounced by native German speakers. Makes one wonder just how many lives were saved by people being able to pronounce a word.


Had a young-ish Japanese teacher in college. Myself and another student would ask her to pronounce “parallelogram,” which would nearly make her brain melt. Then she’d make us write out a bunch of kanji and flame is for how horrible we were lol.


TIL carrots are not standard rabbit food. We think they are because Bugs Bunny ate carrots, but that’s because his creator loved the film “It Happened One Night”, where Clark Gable eats carrots while talking quickly. Also Gable gets called “Doc” throughout the film. (12/13/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Rabbits diet is mostly leafy green stuff because carrots have too many calories for them. It's the equivalent of like a whole pack of bacon. You probably wouldn't mind eating it but having it as a regular diet meal would kill you in short order.


Rabbits like them but they should be limited due to sugar content. FYI - bunnies like bananas more than carrots. Lol. They have big sweet tooths.


It's a similar thing with birds eating bread or cat eating milk. Little did we realize how easily popular media could impart false or even harmful impressions to an audience... Mice also don't prefer cheese. Animators sure loved turning nature on its head.


Something else I blame on Bugs - you know the giant holes in the ground he goes in and out of? When I was a kid I thought that was a standard rabbit hole. One day we're driving on a parkway and I see 2 rows of like 25 holes. I said "wow! That's a lot of rabbits!" My mom starts laughing and asked what I meant. I explained my reasoning and then she told me they were dug to plant trees, and rabbit holes are nowhere near that big. Now I get my learning from a much more reputable source - The Simpsons.


"It Happened One Night" is my favorite movie. In 1934 it won 5 Academy Awards for picture, director, actor, actress, and writing. It is a really good Romantic Comedy. Do yourself a favor and watch it some time.


This small German town took back the power – and went fully 100% renewable, with energy in the joint ownership of the municipality and a new citizen-led cooperative, which now owns 25% of the energy company. (12/12/2019) ~ Futurology

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This is so cool! How could this model be adopted in the US? Small towns only? Maybe places as big as Portland? Very curious because that whole article was brilliant and i want it where i live Edit: moved to a smaller town recently. Always lived in bigger cities but this inspired me to research my local county and found it has a co op program for opt in renewable energy. Just got off the phone and signed up for 100%. So cool!


They own 25% of the company which is not a majority and they can’t make any overriding decisions, they are just along for the ride


I'll believe it when they disconnect their transmission lines outside of their city. Just like every other similar article, they install a peak capacity equal to their energy usage. And when those renewable sources aren't generating because they have very low capacity factors, they rely on outside gas or nuclear or coal to keep them powered.


Is this when I should point out there renewable energy is a giant polluter compared to nuclear power. Edit:I dont know why some people are downvoting this it is a fact I'm sorry if you dont like science


Conservatives failing Germany with inaction. Conservatives failing UK with lies. Conservatives failing US with stupidity. People taking action like this is our best hope.


TIL that the reason that pubs in England have such weird names goes back to medieval times, when most people were illiterate, but could recognize symbols. This is why they have names like Boot and Castle, or Fox and Hound. (12/11/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Makes sense. It's the same logic behind stained glass windows in Middle Age churches: easier to teach an illiterate population about your religion with pictures rather than words.


Omg, that makes so much sense, don't know why I never thought of that


Only mildly related but ... There was a great pub in London called The Elusive Camel. The whole exterior (about four stories) was painted as a desert scene ... with just hoof prints traveling around the building through the sand. And there was a pub near where I grew up called The Office ... the idea being if someone wanted to know where you'd been you could say "Sorry, I've been stuck in the office".


"At the sign of the Green Dragon."


The Swan and Paedo


ELI5: Why can it be difficult to stay awake while driving, but when pulled for a nap it takes effort to fall asleep (12/11/2019) ~ Explain Like I'm Five

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For most of us, driving is a mundane task that we can do on autopilot. As a result, your mind isn't focused and the tiredness can prevail. When stopping to take a nap, you're now focusing on something (trying to nap) and this keeps your mind active. Similarly, you may have sleep anxiety because you know you need a nap. This applies to other things like falling asleep while watching TV then being wide awake once in your bed.


I forget the specifics, but the main reason seems to be micro-vibrations in your ears/cranial nerves cause a relaxed-perhaps hypnotic-state. This is seemingly why the old “take the baby for a drive” trick works so well... not because car rides are a mundane activity for babies.


In the book mans search for meaning - author talks about logotherpy and parts of it have been proven. Specifically, when you actually want to have a certain outcome, it’s sometimes more effective to try to make the opposite happen. For people with sleep anxiety and issues falling asleep, it’s easier to fall asleep if you try to stay awake while in a comfortable spot. I’m not sure the science of it but when I’m sitting in a meeting/driving/sitting at my desk at work and I’m trying my best NOT to sleep, I get so fucking tired it’s unreal. Then when I’m in my comfortable bed wanting to sleep my mind races. Could be this opposite effect thing working it’s magic.


The road plus the stuff going past you and the constant humming of the engine can be very hypnotic, coupled with the fact that you tend to be bored often.. simmilarily train crews struggle with this also it's a very monotonous job staring at the rails watching them go past puts a guy to sleep fast we often have to get up and walk around the cab or talk to each other constantly to stop from sleeping. You wouldent think something loud like a train would do this but let me tell you that engine is the most relaxing thing ever for some reason but only when you dont want it to be


Think how great it will be when we can just push the "autonomous drive" button and nod off for a bit on the highway.


TIL that in a Roman hospital doctors used to hide Jews from Nazi troops by putting them in quarantine for the extremely contagious “K syndrome”. The syndrome didn’t actually exist, but the soldiers wouldn’t dare enter these rooms. (12/8/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Hospital politics are pretty interesting. I volunteered at a children's hospital once and one of the sick kids was in jeopardy of being taken away by CPS because a crazy maternal grandmother had been falsifying reports. The doctors had their "do no harm oath" and knew that the kid being separated from his medical regiment for even a day to sort out legal issues could result in his death. So the head surgeons stashed him in a safe hidden room in far away ward and falsified all his hospital ID/charts for the day to prevent any deadly detainings.


This reminds me of this scene from avatar the last airbender Katara: [Lying] Uh... he has pentapox, sir. [the guard walks up to Sokka, and moves to touch him] Um... it's highly contagious! [guard moves back] Sokka: [Acting ill] Uuuuuu... It's so awful... I'm dyiiiing... Katara: ...and deadly... Guard: Wait, I think I've heard of pentapox. [to one of his comrades] Didn't your cousin Chang die of it? Edit: I made it more readable. Also for those that haven't seen the show, later in the episode (return to omashu), they use pentapox to get the rebellion out the city without the fire nation being aware it's actually an escape.


'Warning: Patients in this wing have been diagnosed with LIGMA"


TIL Rome didn't fall, but continued until at least WWII


We all know what the K was for.


Eli5: How is it that Cows can consume the same fibrous grass that makes every other herbivores scat into tight balls, somehow manage to produce turds of such low density as to be called “cow patties”? ? (12/13/2019) ~ Explain Like I'm Five

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Basically because cows are not as good at conserving water as other herbivores. Because their bodies aren’t trying to save water they don’t spend the energy to reabsorb the water in their poop. An herbivore who lives in an environment where water is scarce wants to loose the least amount of water through its poop as possible, so their bodies spend the energy to pull as much water from their poop as possible. Water is not a limiting resource for cows, so their bodies are not adapted to be efficient at saving water.


Cows have a digestive system heavily optimized for grazing on low-nutritional-value grass. Your small intestine is 5m, theirs is 40m. Your stomach is a small bag, theirs is a giant 4-chambered complex organ that they use like a fermentation vat. Plant matter that passes through this system is thoroughly destroyed and fermented by bacteria into nutrition for the cow. "Non-ruminant" herbivores that don't use this layout tend to leave more undigested fiber in their poo.


can someone explain the QUESTION like im 5?


This is a little different than OP, and doesn't need to be ELI5, but can someone explain why cows poop differ from sheep/goats when all are ruminants then? They're going to be different than hindgut fermenters which is kinda the root of OPs question, but goat scat versus a cow's are very different even though they're in the same family (Bovidae)


Because they basically have constant diarrhea. The bad thing about diarrhea is that you get dehydrated quickly so in the wild, they had to put more energy in conserving water. But domesticated, they were taken care of, so they had an abundant supply of water, and breeding (and thus evolution) could focus on other areas.


TIL Greenland only has one Muslim resident and he is a Lebanese man who runs a restaurant in Nuuk. (12/11/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Everywhere has at least one Lebanese and one Thai running a restaurant.


Getting him to take part in polls or surveys must be a hoot. "Favourite pizza place of 100% of Greenland's muslims!"


Ramadan must be fucking brutal when it comes in summer.


He's the only Sunni part of Greenland.


If we don't patronize the only Lebanese restaurant in town, they'll be nothing left but pan pizzas and... you know, make your own salads.


TIL that Dolly Parton’s family was so poor that the doctor who brought her into the world was paid with a sack of cornmeal (12/8/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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>“People hear me talk about eating squirrel and groundhogs, but in the mountains like that, you really didn’t have much of a choice,” says Parton matter-of-factly. “There were twelve of us kids. We never ate possum — I remember Daddy saying, ‘That’s like a damn rat.’ But we ate everything — turtle, frogs. I just remember the big old groundhogs — whistle pigs, they called them — and you’d cook ’em with sweet potatoes, and you’d have different ways of making some of that gamy taste go away.” >Having to do without, wearing feed-sack dresses that her mother, Avie, sewed, didn’t make Dolly bitter. Instead, it fostered in her a sense of resilient optimism that characterizes so much of her writing. “People say, ‘You were so poor, what did you play with?’ Well, I played with David and Denver and Stella” — her siblings. One Christmas, young Dolly cried for a doll that walked and talked. Instead, she got a new baby brother, Randy. Look, you got a doll better than everybody’s, said her dad. This one walks and talks and pees and everything. Her outlook on her childhood is very positive as well. Seems like the fame didn't change her humble personality at all


Dolly is one of the world’s greatest human beings.


Doesn't she also mail free books monthly to children? She knows how much early childhood affects the rest of your life and she chose to do something about it.


In To Kill a Mockingbird a client of Atticus' visits the home to deliver some produce from his farm as payment for his legal services. Scout calls out to him but the man ignores her and walks away. Atticus tells Scout to never call him out like that again despite her good intentions. He tells her that it shames the man as he was making payment the only way he could since he had no money. In my personal experience I used to live below a poor Chinese family (I'm in Toronto, Canada). Every now and then they'd come by and ask me in translate some mail or otherwise help with some documents (I'm Chinese-Canadian). The next day without fail they would come by and give me some fruit or once they gave me Lo Mai Gai (sticky rice wrapped in lotus leaves) as a thank you. I never expected it but it would have been very rude to refuse. It was their way of showing thanks. So when I read Parton's story, I get it. I myself grew up poor and while I'm doing very well in my 30s, every time I decide to drop by McDonald's and get an iced coffee I appreciate it because I could never afford that luxury in the past. I'm perpetually aware of my past and of the luxuries (comparatively speaking) I enjoy today.


We was so poor that the ducks use to throw bread at us


TIL in the Hobbit movies, Smaug is guarding 16,646,250 metric tons of gold, and it would be worth approximately 676 trillion USD. (12/12/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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That’s roughly 89 times the amount of gold that has ever been mined in the entirety of human history.


I mean I honesty think from what they say in the books most of it is armor, weapons, gems even like gem encrusted plates and such not just all gold.


It wouldn't though, because you'd flood the market and its value would plummet.


I know others have mentioned this, but this may be the most accurate post to a sub name I've ever heard: /r/theydidthemonstermath


Smaug 2020.


TIL the urban legend of Atari burying hundreds of thousands of ET cartridges in a New Mexico landfill actually happened. An excavation found them in 2014. (12/8/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Anyone old enough to share just how bad the game really was?


I didn't know this was an "urban legend". I thought it was simply a fact. I mean how hard is it to believe that Atari overproduced a videogame and then simply trashed what they couldn't sell? What else would you expect them to do with so many unsellable cartridges?


If I remember correctly, The Tularosa Basin Museum of History in Alamogordo, New Mexico has an excavated box on display.


They should have used magazine ads and made people send in a self addressed stamped envelope or other acceptable packaging then workers could have sent out free games and increased sales of the console itself. Kids don't care if a game is shit if its free


It wasn't an urban legend. A lot articles written about it at the time


The Man Who Used HIV As a Weapon (2019) Guy goes on a deliberate campaign with sabotaged condoms to infect his Grindr dates with AIDS. Then taunts his victim’s by telling them after. (12/14/2019) ~ Documentaries

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Well that's fucked up.


Why the fuck would someone do that.


I would not feel sorry for him if a victim went ballistic and fucked him up in a parking lot. Retroviruses can mess you up even if you are on your meds. A warped evil man who deserves whatever karma has in store for him...


This is no longer a felony in California but rather a misdemeanor with punishment equal to public intoxication.


I learned some life advice from the show Blue Mountain State and I will always respect it till the day I die. ALWAYS USE YOUR OWN CONDOMS.


ELI5. Why are large passenger/cargo aircraft designed with up swept low mounted wings and large military cargo planes designed with down swept high mounted wings? I tried to research this myself but there was alot of science words… Dihedral, anhedral, occilations, the dihedral effect. (12/8/2019) ~ Explain Like I'm Five

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Military cargo aircraft use high mounted wings because it allows them to use unprepared or hastily prepared runways. Keeping the engines up high helps with not sucking in a bunch of dirt and rocks. Passenger aircraft operate pretty much exclusively from well maintain airports, so that isn't a big deal for them. Upswept wings make a plane more stable in a roll. The aerodynamics work out so the plane's natural tendency is to want to roll back to wings-level. This makes the plane easier to fly, and generally more comfortable, but limits the rate at which it can roll. High-wing large transports usually already have quite a lot of roll stability, so downswept wings are used to give them slightly more responsive handling, which helps when landing in adverse conditions.


Military cargo planes are desired to be very close to the ground for easy loading and unloading of extremely heavy cargo. So the whole plane is reconfigured to avoid banging the wings and engines into the ground. also they are used sometimes on bad quality runways which may contain dirt and gravel, so again there is a desire to pull the engines up away from debris.


Military transports have a high-mounted wing in order to get the bottom of the fuselage as close to the ground as possible, so you can drive vehicles into them via a built-in ramp. It also reduces the obstacle clearance requirements on crudely-built forward-area runways. The higher the wing is on the fuselage, the more stable the aircraft is in the yaw and roll axes. Airliners have dihedral (upswept wings) to take advantage of this. Military transports, with their high-mounted wings, would be *too* stable with dihedral -- so they have anhedral (downswept wings) to offset it. There is one airliner with high, anhedral wings, the BAe146. Many of its passengers can't see the scenery because the engines are in the way -- worse, its only emergency exits are at the ends, because if you tried to abandon it amidships you'd run into a hot engine.


Airliners prefer to have low mounted wings and low mounted engines because lower engines are much easier to reach. In fact, a big selling point is often that the low engines don't need much complex equipment to reach. Just an elevated platform and you can basically strip the thing down if you have to. Low mounted wings are also much easier to land as the ground effect is much more pronounced, but a disadvantage is not being able to have a lot of clearance between the wings and the ground on the ground. So you can't have lots of people darting around under the plane the same way you could with a military cargo plane. ​ Speaking of cargo, cargo is a huge factor that goes into how you build a plane. Every plane wants to carry as much cargo and as efficiently as possible. For commercial planes like the 747, they are a mix of carrying passengers in the crew compartments and luggage, mail, or other goods in cargo areas. ​ For a military transport, you basically have to carry extremes, either a huge amount of passengers like paratroopers or no passengers and only tanks or vehicles, so 1 giant cargo hold is better than having the plane cut in half for specific loads. ​ Also you want to be able to access said cargo. You could use a lift like a commercial plane, but having high mounted wings means the fuselage can be MUCH closer to the ground. So you can literally just drive off the plane. For a 747 or A380, you could carry vehicles in it, but you would almost certainly need a crane to get it out, a C-150 could just open up and you could drive the car off.


About "dihedral" and "anhedral": Those words just refer to the wing design shape you're talking about. Wings bent down is anhedral and wings bent up is dihedral. Dihedral is good because it improves the plane's stability while flying while anhedral makes it worse. We like our civilian passenger planes nice and safe and stable so we design them with dihedral. Military planes, like the c-5 and c-17, use anhedral not because they are made to be unstable, but actually because the wings create so much lift to make such a heavily loaded plane fly that they actually bend upward and have a slight dihedral while in flight


TIL The FBI investigated the song “Louie Louie” because people thought the lyrics were dirty. After three months, the FBI abandoned the investigation because it couldn’t make out the words. (12/13/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Why the fuck was the FBI investigating a song suspected of having dirty lyrics? Aren't they supposed to be investigating things like murders, money laundering, tax evasion, etc? You know, shit that matters?


>Louie Louie, oh no, you take me where ya gotta go, yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah, baby Louie Louie, oh baby, take me where ya gotta go >A fine little girl, she waits for me Me catch the ship across the sea Me sailed the ship all alone Me never think I'll make it home >Louie Louie, oh no no no, me gotta go, oh no Louie Louie, oh baby, me gotta go >Three nights and days I sailed the sea Me think of girl constantly On the ship, I dream she there I smell the rose in her hair >Louie Louie, oh no, me gotta go, yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah, baby Louie Louie, oh baby, me gotta go Okay, let's give it to 'em right now >Me see >Me see Jamaica, the moon above It won't be long me see me love Me take her in my arms and then I tell her I'll never leave again >Louie Louie, oh no, me gotta go, yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah, baby Louie Louie, oh baby, me gotta go I said me gotta go now Let's hustle on out of here Let's go There ya go, FBI.


another fun fact -it was originally a Roots Reggae / Ska / Rocksteady song before they covered it. Also a fun fact the Drummer actually does shouts fuck or shit in the background at one point.


Yes hello FBI? Hi I'm concerned about these song lyrics. No they aren't necessarily dirty because we can't understand them. But they might be. If so, we would like to be offended by them so please investigate. Find out what the lyrics say and get back to us so we know whether or not we are outraged. -Sincerely, (possibly) Concerned Parents


But did they ever investigate the Secret Asian Man?


TIL Dr. Seuss’ widow disliked ‘The Cat in the Hat’ (2003) so much that she banned Hollywood from making Live Action movies of Seuss characters (12/13/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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His characters just don't translate to live action. I don't see how they did makeup tests for this movie and thought "yeah this is a good idea."


TIL I’m one of about 10 people worldwide who love this movie. “I’ll get you and it’ll look like a bloody accident”


Also, Dr. Suess disliked his wife so much that he had an affair with another woman while his wife had cancer.


I liked that movie a lot growing up


In a similar vein, does anyone else think the upcoming "The Cats" looks *fucking horrifying?* Did they not learn from the disaster that was Cat in the Hat? I mean God those costumes are off-putting.


ELI5: Why did cyan and magenta replace blue and red as the standard primaries in color pigments? What exactly makes CMY(K) superior to the RYB model? And why did yellow stay the same when the other two were updated? (12/12/2019) ~ Explain Like I'm Five

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Red Yellow Blue was used in early printing because that was the best they knew at the time. Technology advanced, and printing color images switched to using magenta and cyan to get a wider, more accurate range of colors. Our eyes see three basic colors of light: Red, Green, and Blue. Cyan pigment only absorbs one color from light, Red; this leaves behind Blue and Green. Magenta pigment absorbs only Green. Yellow pigment absorbs Blue. Mix those three in varying combinations and you can get every color the human eye can perceive. (Technically you don't need Black in CMYK, but it takes a lot of CMY to get a good, dark Black.) In contrast, Red Yellow and Blue can only be mixed to *most* visible colors, but there are some that are simply not possible to create with those three as your "primary" colors. The reason Yellow "gets a pass" is because it is a primary color in color schemes for both subtractive light and traditional art. So why did we use Red Yellow Blue for so long? Because (a) for a long time we didn't know enough about light to know Cyan and Magenta are better primaries, and (b) Cyan and Magenta pigments are hard to make, requiring (relatively) modern processes.


CMYK does not account for the color white. It does not need to because it is designed to be used for color renditions to be printed on white paper; white just means "no ink". With CMYK, the color produced by combining all colors to full saturation is a dark brown. With printed inks, greater application of ink reduces light reflected and results in a darker image. This is noteworthy because it's the opposite with light renditions. On to RGB! RGB, on the other hand, does not account for the color black. It does not need to because it is designed to be used for color renditions to be produced with light; black just means "no light". With RGB, the color produced by combining all colors of light is white. This is why RGB is used for computer screens. It can render white. CMYK cannot. For PC display hardware, black backgrounds do not reflect light emanating from nearby lit pixels, so black is an ideal color for the screen's backing. It can display black by simply not lighting a pixel, and the pixel will hold black well enough because it reflects minimal light from the black backing. If the backing were right (so an off pixel displayed white), the white would reflect colors of nearby lit pixels and not appear white at all. Thus, CMYK for printing and RGB for light renditions that require production of the color white.


>**EDIT:** to clarify my questions a bit, I'm not asking about the difference between additive/subtractive color models which has already been covered in other threads on this sub. I'm asking why/how the older Red-Yellow-Blue model in art/printing was updated to Cyan-Magenta-Yellow, which is the current standard Oh but you are. It has -everything- to do with subtractive color models. Blue, Yellow, Green, and Red inks were among the first to come out, so they got used in microdotting early on. The big problem with these four colors is that you can't make most of the colors (because of subtractive color that pigmentation works on); this made things look grainy, lacking color depth. It's one reason why comics before a certain time look like crap. Once cheaper dyes and computers became ubiquitous in publishing, they developed the CYMK coding model so that computer-information could easily be shifted into color printing. CYMK doesn't have much translating needed to convert from RGB (additive color, which is how graphics is stored and processed in most computer use), and so that also became attractive as What You See Is What You Get (WYSIWYG) publishing became the norm. The reason black is added as a fourth color is simply because of cost: Black ink is FAR cheaper, and blacker, than if you made black out of the three color inks. As for what was previously used, there were various color models, each with advantages and disadvantages. Four-color used Red, Blue, Yellow, Green, and Black. It did not mix Yellow and Blue to get Green ink because that would be expensive--it was cheaper just to use Green ink. Because it used those four primary colors, this was called 'Four-color printing' and was the norm until inexpensive Cyan and Magenta inks became available and computers were the norm. Another form of color printing used was 'Spot Color' where two or three colors of ink were used. This could be used to get exactly the color you wanted, but you'd only get that color, and usually the second color was black. This is considerably less expensive than Four-color, but it's not the least expensive option. After this, you have good'ol Monochrome. Usually, black, but sometimes a different color, that's when they use one ink and one ink only. Unless you know what you're looking for, you might think a given book is full color throughout, but it actually might not be. It might be using a combination of four CYMK pages interleaved with spot-color pages to give the illusion of full color, while costing a lot less to publish. This might explain why your favorite gaming book doesn't have the table you want on the page you'd think it should be (because it uses a different spot-color than the page you'd think it be on) or why it seems some sections of that book have full color art, and then long sections with only text, but those text pages have that metallic gold lettering you ever see on the full color pages (CYMK doesn't have metallic sheen or similar things)


>Why did cyan and magenta replace blue and red as the standard primaries in color pigments? Painters used "true" blue and red because 1) the pigments are easier to obtain in nature 2) people were still learning how color works 3) R and B were good enough to recreate the majority of colors around them. The range of missing colors (like magenta, bright purples, oranges etc) arent often needed in paintings of natural subjects. >What exactly makes CMY(K) superior to the RYB model? It's "superior" because you can create more colors with that system. As others have said- you can mix M with Y and C to make R and B and many other colors you can't get with RYB. RYB makes "muddier" colors. I put superior in quotes because many painters still use an RYB palette, because it's easier to make those duller, earthier colors. Modern printers need to make ALL the colors though. >And why did yellow stay the same when the other two were updated? They just had yellow correct from the beginning. Again- they work as primaries for many many colors. Just needed a bit of refining to get more.


RYB has a smaller gamut than CMY, but it might be easier for painters using pigments that are more opaque and difficult to mix. Dyes being mixed by computers are much more precise, far beyond what a painter can handle on their palette. Ultimately it is just a less capable model which has a lot of institutional inertia behind it.


The world’s most polluting companies could be sued for their contributions to global warming, a major human rights inquiry has found in what has been described as a “landmark victory for climate justice”. (12/10/2019) ~ Futurology

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For the record, this is in its entirety a fluff article: this "landmark victory" is literally nothing more than a small, independent third party in the Philippines claiming that theres legal ramifications for pollution This means jack shit Companys have already been held legally accountable for all kinds of pollution in the past, so not only does these claims not hold water, theyre not even a landmark victory Can we please stop flooding this sub with unciteworthy articles just because it supports our views, it doesnt help anyone


Curious how they would react if the companies decided it just cheaper to no longer sell oil to the Philippines ?


How is enriching attorneys a victory for anyone except the attorneys?


Honestly when you consider companies like ExxonMobil who actually did studies about climate change in the 1970s and found out that it is human caused by their own scientist's studies then I feel like what they've done is Criminal and should be tried for those kinds of crimes and even put into prison. If we can imprison a powerful group of people who willingly are destroying the environment and our future then I think an appropriate response of being put into prison makes sense and it also sends a message to other billionaires who think it's okay to use people for their own personal gain.


I will support anyone who wants to help the move to renewable energy and clean transportation. But, as soon as you use the term "climate justice" you've jumped the shark in my mind, and I'm no longer going to support you.


TIL that in the painting “American Gothic” it’s a father and daughter, not husband and wife pictured. (12/10/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Well that's interesting! I, too, always assumed it was husband/wife. Thanks!


Do you mean the people who modelled for the painting? Because they are the artist's sister and dentist.


Desperate housewives got it absolutely wrong then


Why did this painting get so famous actually? What does it represent, or what is commonly thought it represents?


So THAT's how it is in their family...


The U.S. Farmers and Ranchers Alliance hosted a secret meeting of 3 Secretaries of Agriculture, CEOs of major food companies, green groups, and anti-hunger advocates to discuss the effects of climate change on farming and what farmers can do to sequester carbon. (12/10/2019) ~ Futurology

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The last time they met up, didn't they decide to send japanese farmers to internment camps so they can steal their farmland?




I'm a farmer. So what can I do to sequester carbon?


I've got an idea farmers and businesspeople; quit voting for climate change deniers.


HEMP is the number one cash crop that can help stop all this. HEMP HEMP HEMP, it has so many properties that will help save the planet, if we still have time.


TIL about the International Fixed Calendar. It is comprised of 13 months of 28 days each (364) + 1 extra day that doesn’t belong to any week. it is a perennial calendar and every date falls on the same day every year. It was never adopted by any country but the Kodak company used it from 1928-1989. (12/14/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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I used this calendar at Kodak from 1981 to 1989. It actually worked well for arranging meetings and due dates. Periods always started on a Monday and ended 4 weeks later on a Sunday. If you scheduled a meeting once a period it was very consistent spot for every period. If you needed a period-end report it was always at the end of the week.


Lousy Smarch weather.


Would be boring is my bithday would always be on same day!


The current calendar pisses me off in an irrational manner. It's a complete mess.


I’m a huge fan of this and wish it was standard, but why would we get anything that makes sense?


TIL of Sogen Kato, believed to be the oldest man in Tokyo at the age of 111 until it was discovered he died at 79 and the family lied about it to keep receiving his pension (12/12/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Pension fraud seems really common in japan, or at least easy to do for a bit of time. But for 32 years? That’s impressive.


Maybe kill him off at 105 and call it a win.


I was living in Tokyo at that time and recall this being pretty big news. The eldery are treasured and openly celebrated in Japan, and for the family this was all smooth sailing right up until he hit rock star celebrity status and could not be rolled out for the cameras (or even the social service folks).


And by "discovered", they mean "discovered his mummified remains which had been laying in the bedroom, seemingly untouched, for more then 30 years".


Damn they were really playing the long con game for over 3 decades


TIL that in Spearfish, South Dakota on January 22, 1943 at 7:30 am, it was -4 °F, then two minutes later, the temperature rose up to 45 °F. This is the fastest temperature change ever. (12/8/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Biggest rise in temperature in a 24hr period > Montana holds the U.S. (and perhaps world) record for the fastest rise in temperature over a 24-hour period. A downslope chinook wind event pushed the temperature at the town of Loma from -54°F at 9 am on January 14, 1972, to 49°F by 8 am on January 15th. The 103°F (57.2°C) rise is the greatest change in temperature ever officially measured on earth within a 24-hour period.   Biggest drop in temperature in a 24hr period > Once again, Montana holds (perhaps) the world record for the sharpest drop in temperature as well as the sharpest increase. Browning, MT, saw its temperature drop 100°F, from 44°F to -56°F, in less than 24 hours as a result of a cold front passage on January 23-24, 1916.


-20c to +7c for the rest of the planet


I've been in spearfish when the Chinook comes through. It's like a summer breeze in the middle of winter.


I’m imagining some guy opening the front door to feel the air outside for the morning. A few minutes later, he walks out in his parka, sweater, thermals, mittens, and hat, and is visibly confused when he starts sweating.


Some kid left the front door open and heated the whole neighborhood before their dad whooped their ass and closed the door.


ELI5. How do you bring back a species from from near extinction? (12/9/2019) ~ Explain Like I'm Five

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Serious inbreeding can be avoided with 200 animals. That's enough to introduce enough genetic mixup without causing too much of a problem (if there were only 2 rhinos, and the whole population had to stem from that, you'd have potential problems). There is something called the 50/500 rule made in 1980 by Australian geneticist Ian Franklin and American biologist Michael Soule. This rule suggests a minimum population of 50 in order to combat inbreeding, though a minimum of 500 to reduce genetic drift. This is a bit of a generalization, and does vary species to species (species who have higher "litters" like mice and insects can tolerate lower populations than species with lower numbers (like large mammals or huge trees). So in the case of a rhino, 200 is probably enough to introduce enough genetic variability to avoid major inbreeding problems, but there may be some genetic drift, and if the population were to balloon back to normal wild levels, those Rhinos may be significantly genetically different from the wild Rhinos of old as a result of so many offspring coming from a small source gene pool. EDIT: Wow, thanks for the silvers, responses, and support! I'm happy to have helped, in some small way, make the internet slightly more useful than a big porn box. EDIT2: Now GOLD?! You flatter me, Reddit!


I remember reading about how all giant squids, regardless of which ocean you find them in, have incredibly similar DNA. This could be a result of giant squids becoming nearly extinct at some point in time, and then later their population is restored, but it came from a limited gene pool, that is, the few survivors.


If i remember the paper correctly, you can re-breed from as few as ~30, though at that point it requires VERY carefully management and there will be some....unfortunate ones. Anything in the 3 figures is pretty manageable assuming the animals will breed in at least relative captivity, which isn't guaranteed.


A very rigorous and extensive planned breeding program. Like others said, as long as they aren't too genetically similar to start with, 200 is easily a big enough genetic pool to produce offspring without inbreeding effects. You just have to ensure, through relocation or captive breeding, that the various populations intermingle and continue diversifying. So you start by cataloging the existing animals and their genealogies as far as you can. Then you closely monitor the existing animals and ensure different lines are interbreeding. If a population becomes too isolated and begins trying to inbreed, then you move some viable adults from a different population into the stagnating one. It's a lot of work.


Not only can inbreeding be avoided, but inbreeding isn’t a genetic death sentence. It’s kind of a secret weapon for species coming back. Unless they get really unlucky, the carriers of defective genes die off without breeding, so after a few generations, the species has relatively broken free of any genetic defects caused by inbreeding. They lack genetic diversity, and are more likely to have genetic diseases, but they still live on


TIL that two MIT Scientists successfully planted a false memory into a mouse (Mouseception). When set in a certain box, the mouse freezes in terror, recalling that it receives a shock in this box, when this never happened. This research may lead to new treatments for Depression or Alzheimer’s, etc. (12/10/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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If they manage to do this with humans the possibilities would be terrifying in the hands of a power crazy government that needs a scapegoat to take the blame for their shenanigans


Couldn't they have implanted something about cheese


"Stop being depressed or we'll put you in the terror box"


1. Scientists invent incredible new technology. 2. They immediately test it by creating pain and terror. 3. ? 4. Profit!


Mickey Ultra.


TIL that the scene of Big Bird learning Mr. Hooper died was in one take because the cast was so overwhelmed they couldn’t do another. The emotional reactions were all genuine. (12/14/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Oh God I remember watching that episode as a kid. I remember being kind of sad but it didn't really sink in until I asked my mom about it later and got the full explanation. Weeks later BOOM Mr Hooper is back on TV! Screamed to my mom how he didn't die after all...and then I was told about re-runs, and how TV isn't happening somewhere at that exact instance. That summer kinda sucked, really.


>The producers considered explaining his absence with a retirement to Florida, but opted to take the challenge of honoring Lee's death by turning it into an educational experience. The 1,839th episode of Sesame Street aired on Thanksgiving Day, 1983. The reasoning behind the date was because families were more likely to be together to help the kids in the audience in case they had questions or needed emotional support. Balancing out the "Street Scenes" were the usual Sesame Street songs and cartoons to keep the air from becoming too serious or too alien to the kids. I love how they turned it into a teaching moment to cover a serious topic with the kids. Seems like the best way to honor Mr. Hooper's memory


And now big bird is gone ;-;


Old-school Sesame Street was something special. They really respected the intelligence of the kids watching.


I know the actor died in 1982, late 1982 but I didn't see this episode until 1983 and I remember Big Bird in it.


In the early 1960s Soviet Russia trained an all-female space squad in absolute secrecy. One of these cosmonauts — Valentina Tereshkova — became the first woman in space. But the story of her crewmates was classified. Moscow shut the program down, and hid its existence for decades. (12/11/2019) ~ History

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Fun Fact: The game Kerbal Space Program has a character named Valentina Kerman in honor of this achievement!


I knew the Soviet program had beaten NASA in sending a woman to space by nearly 20 years, but I didn't know that Valentina was part of a larger program to train complete squadrons of female cosmonauts. The article is a long read but goes into depth on their individual stories. Also, that they were subsequently erased from history is tragic.


There’s a fantastic show on Apple TV called “For All Mankind” that is about possible Russian military operations on the moon and the conflict with the Americans, who are also inhabiting an American base on the moon. I don’t want to get too deep and spoil anything, but if this interests you then it’s a must watch.


I wonder if mathematically it makes sense to use a female over male. They tend to be smaller, which would mean reduced oxygen and food requirements. Also, especially in the early days, weight and size would be at a premium.


Why would they keep it a secret? It seems like a perfect way for the Soviets to show off their super women


A Mile an Hour – Running a Different Kind of Marathon (2018) – Good-natured Aussie dude runs 1 mile every hour for 24 hours, completing projects and little tasks in-between every hour. Will make you rethink how you can spend your day. (12/12/2019) ~ Documentaries

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Why is he running in miles if he’s Australian?


I have a loop at home that is 6.2 miles. I use it as mt 10k days. Anyways, i was preparing for a loop ultra coming up, so i decided to do loops on it one Saturday. Of course it was my gf's week to work. So i decided to do chores while running. I would run a lap then spend 20 minutes resting and doing laundry and dishes and vacuuming. It was my first marathon ever. Took my me 5 hrs and 40 minutes to do 4 laps and complete 3 loads of laundry, dishes, and cleaning up the house.


People like this really do inspire me. I wish I could kick depression's ass and do stuff like this. One step at a time. Just lovely.


This is cool. Would anyone like to do this with me? Idc who you are. We can just pick an hour to start and talk about what we’ve done in between. I’d need to wait for June to begin though, unless you wanna be my moral support for a 24-hour gym drop-in.


I do this with Runescape minus the running.


TIL that some Users of the Antidepressant Clomipramine have an unexpected side effect of spontaneous orgasms after yawning. (12/12/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Bring forth the Clomipramine, a DVD of Michael Portillo’s Railway Journeys, a jug of water and a multipack of tissues.


One of the side effects of Lexapro is frequent yawning....take both and sleep only 4 hours nightly? Lol Going to be a bit awkward at work or in public though, one would think...


Well that's one way to combat depression.


>The patient was particularly ambivalent about continuing the medication, because he had noted a frequent intense urge to yawn without tiredness and that on many occasions when he yawned, he experienced orgasm, with ejaculation. He denied increased libidinal drive or related fantasy. Although he found this both awkward and embarrassing, he elected to continue the medication because of the therapeutic benefit he obtained. The awkwardness and embarrassment was overcome by continuously wearing a condom. With discontinuation of the medication several weeks later, the phenomenon disappeared. "Sir, are you sure you don't want to keep trying this medication?" "Dude, no. My boss gave a presentation and now he thinks I'm weird cuz I got a hard on when he was talking about cutbacks."


Doctors of reddit: what can I say to my doctor to get a prescription for this?


(2019) ‘The Hum’: The Unexplained Noise 2% of People Can Hear (25.14) (12/9/2019) ~ Documentaries

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"Watch a video about people who want to feel special while being unable to accept the fact that they have Tinnitus" Yeah, I'm good.


Before today's lcd/led TV's I could always "hear" TV's and some other devices if they we on without seeing the screen or even being aware there was a tv in the vicinity. I don't think I can hear the newer models now


This documentary is a perfect example of how conspiracy theorists justify their actions, and OCD can ruin your life. A tiny background noise in his house bothered him so much that he was driving around 6-7 hours on saturdays and sundays, and using audio equipment to "track" it miles away. His science throughout is conducted very poorly, to the point that I have to believe it was done on purpose, for confirmation bias. First he fails to isolate his sound source from a turned-on laptop (which obviously has a fan). Then he talks over the recordings other times and uses that as data. When his assumptions are proven wrong, the next rational step he goes to is a widespread conspiracy against him and other people around the world. Driving far away from his house and the original problem, because he can't give up his fixation. After assembling huge amounts of "data" he writes many complaint letters about the closest scapegoat, and forces Iroquois Gas to check if their nearby compressors are responsible, due to the "harmful physical and mental effects" of this hum. The doc's highlighted sections of their report are not the parts you should read, it's a lot funnier to see how frustrated they are getting with him, and the complete lack of evidence he has to support his claims. Even the sound he's complaining about at his house is coming from nearly the opposite direction! It only goes downhill after his case gets thrown out. He takes global surveys of people who hear the hum, and lines it up with the map of gas pipelines, **without accounting for population!** Like, no shit dude, the places with more people are also going to have more gas pipelines. Immediately after that he says mental illnesses are the hum's fault, so even if he or anyone else he surveyed does have schizophrenia or alzheimers or autism, it was probably due to the sound. The last straw for me was when he smugly suggested that Sandy Hook wouldn't have happened if people had listened to him earlier, because the sound was "particularly bad" a few days before. It's scary as hell to me that conspiracy theories start up like this. He repeatedly failed to prove that this was anything other than his own personal madness, but just used each failure as an opportunity to expand the conspiracy further. Now he has a support group of people around the world that agree with him, and an echo chamber for his shoddy science. And it probably all started because of imperceptible sounds coming out of his household electronics on standby, that most people can easily tune out. This is an engineer's mind gone rogue, when there's no problem for it to solve, and it's terrifying what that can do to you.


Would like to see an actual measurement and freqency they are looking at. A $20 decibel meter is laughable.


"Isn't it strange? Birds chirping in the middle of the night?" Um... buddy, those aren't birds, they are frogs.


TIL the rendering of the Death Star plans in the original Star Wars was created by two students using computers at JPL. The writers and staff planned to thank JPL in the credits, until one programmer pointed out that JPL didn’t even know their computers had been used. (12/13/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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JPL- Jet Propulsion Laboratory for those not in the know.


Did the two students get credited?


This is actually one of the things I wish Lucas had fixed in the special edition, because it doesn't match the Death Star (the dish is in the equator). And then they even used it in Rogue One, which was frustrating. 😕


That's not what the article says. Mike Plesset says the writers and staff that were involved a CalArts short film *prior to* Star Wars intended the JPL credit and had to remove it (from that short). Then later, some of the same programmers contributed some of their expertise/graphics to Star Wars (in which Larry Cuba received an end credit).


Always think twice before thanking someone to their boss. Is it part of their job? If not, be vague and just say they were very helpful. Don’t say they ignored process, guidelines or rules to help you. Sometimes your thanks gets them in a lot of trouble. Exactly the opposite of what you intended.


Robot bartending company is handing out cash to the people it is replacing – For every robot bartender that it sells, the company is going to be handing over a $1,000 monthly stipend to a select person in a field likely to be affected by automation. (12/12/2019) ~ Futurology

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Next step for bartenders is to move to Bosnia/Albania/Uzbekistan in order to live on $1000 per month.


For life? To be adjusted for inflation every so often?


Now imagine a new competitor company gives no shits about displaced workers and offers their similar product to bars for $500/month less. Bars want the cheaper model and the company also pockets $500 per sale per month than the competitor which it can feed back into R&D and attracting better engineers even if sales are equal. But sales are not equal because the two are comparable and one is $6K per year cheaper. Then the original company goes bankrupt one day and all those people relying on their promise for $1000 payments are devastated.


This sounds exactly like what Andrew yang has been describing


Automation of basic service industry jobs is on the way weather one likes it or not. At least this company is trying to get ahead of the curve. Many people may feel Adverse with a robot serving drinks, however they will warm up if the prices are good and they do not feel the extra pressure of having to tip. This company is building good PR with the idea of universal basic income for the people that robots are displacing.


TIL How often you hold your baby actually affects their DNA. The researchers looked at a process called DNA methylation. When they compared the methylation between the children the cells of the low-contact children were less mature than they should have been given the child’s actual age. (12/9/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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FUCK ME! Why am I not an ax-wielding serial killer? Here's the story my Mother told me about 15 years ago before she died of cancer...and I was 45 at the time. My Big Brother David was 2.5 yrs old when I was born. he was the apple of my parent's eyes. He was a happy child and a joy to be around. He also contracted Leukemia when I was born. Back then they could not differentiate between leukemia and Mononucleosis. The technology just wasn't there. So parents were told to treat the child for Mono, and if he died he must have had Leukemia. And as my Mother confessed, she did everything she could for David. All she had the time and effort to do for me was feed me and change my diaper and put me back in the crib. This routine went on till I was 2.5 years old. Then David died. Mom said he was bleeding from the fingers eyes and anus when he finally died. And she got over grieving for him and noticed me standing in the crib smiling. She decided to start loving me. Within the Month I got Mono. This caused my Mother to completely emotionally shut down. I understand why, I just do not like that it happened to me. Both my parents pretty much ignored me. They got a divorce when I was in the fourth grade. What got my Mom to talk about what she did to me was the leukemia...She never said a nice thing to me, and only touched me to punish me. While confessing she asked, "Do you remember the day you left for college? I replied with, "You mean the day I went to Auburn and you woke up after I had the car packed. And how when I was pulling out of the driveway I saw the front door open but I kept on backing out like I did not see that. And how while I was driving away I saw you come down, and stand in the street, and look at my car, and you started to cry? She said, "You saw that? And you didn't stop? Do you know why I was crying?" "No, I had no idea, because I felt like you had done nothing to help me get in to any college. You didn't even get up out of bed till 10 AM that morning." She said, "Yes I was crying because I had never helped you, AND you were still going to go to a real college. And I wondered what you would have been if I had helped you at all. And how different both our lives would have been. And then she died from Leukemia a couple of months later... And I still wonder why I have so many axes?


Not exactly related, but I remember either reading or learning in one of my parenting classes (did home birth) that physical contact in infants leads to greater brain development as a result of all those developing synapses firing off from registering physical contact. But having an effect on your genes? Thats crazy.


Uh, you mean they randomly picked babies and told their parents not to hold them? Or you mean,parents who show poor parenting skills have genetic problems?


epigenetic control is an incredibly important factor in gene expression.


Neglect is worse in some ways than abuse.


TIL of Federal Express Flight 705. In April 1994, a disgruntled, suicidal employee tried to hijack and down the plane, brutally attacking the crew with a hammer. The wounded captain put the DC-10 in a dive and rolled it to incapacitate the attacker before landing successfully. (12/11/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Those pilots are heroes. Staying calm and performing your duties while you're bleeding out and have bone fragments in your brain is amazing. Fuck that guy for trying to take down 3 innocent people with him. And he still plays the victim today. Says he was the worst injured of the group and that he shouldn't be held responsible. He destroyed 3 careers that day. Seriously, fuck him.


> He sought to let his family collect on a $2.5 million life insurance policy provided by Federal Express. There it is...always follow the money


Sad part is the crew sustained serious enough injuries that none of them are able to fly as they used to


And this plus 9/11 killed the jumpseat travel program for employees. We still get discounts on other airlines but free would have been nice.


My dad worked for FedEx at the time and would ride in the cargo area for business trips (it was a policy at the time). I remember right after he flew in the cargo area and preflight one of the pilots told him “I’ve got a handgun up here, if you try to come up here all pull any of that shit (hijack the plane) I will kill you in a heartbeat”


TIL that the most expensive hot dog at an MLB stadium is $7 at Nationals Park in Washington DC, while the cheapest hot dog is $1.50 at Oriole Park in Baltimore, less than an hour away. (12/9/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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These are ALL crazy. You can spend $7.50 in Philly at CBP. Yet you can also get them for $1 if you go on certain nights. At Yankees they refused to give me a plastic lid for my soda on a ridiculously windy day because it "could be used as a weapon." Like, awesome, I have a mid row seat with a soda filled to the brim and its windy.


Does it count when that SF dog is the kids menu dog, not the full 1/4 pound dog at 10.50?


You know the other difference between their hotdogs? You can get a hotdog at Nationals Park in October.


Madden Franchise mode teaches you to raise the ticket prices first, then the concession prices when ticket prices can't be raised anymore. 🙂


2 hotdogs and a beer at Nats park is 20 bucks, no change.


TIL that for 6 years after her death, the brothers of Joan of Arc passed off an imposter as their sister, claiming that she’d escaped death. They received lavish gifts and travelled from one festive reception to the next, until finally admitting their deception to the King of France. (12/9/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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As a sister to 3 brothers, I am not in any way surprised.


The time before ID and photography was truly magical


>One of several women who posed as Joan in the years following her death, Claude des Armoises resembled the well-known heretic and had supposedly participated in military campaigns while dressed in men’s clothing. She and two of Joan’s brothers, Jean and Pierre, crafted a scheme in which Claude presented herself to the people of Orléans, pretending to have fled her captors and married a knight while living in obscurity. The trio received lavish gifts and traveled from one festive reception to the next until Claude finally admitted their subterfuge to Charles VII, whose ascension Joan had engineered in 1429. Despite their involvement in the deception, Jean and Pierre played key roles in successfully petitioning Pope Callixtus III for Joan’s retrial, having presumably given up the charade of her survival by the 1450s. This Mulan remake sounds pretty dark for Disney


So Joan of Arc really was the toast of the town


When you roll a paladin but your brothers roll rogue and bard...


ELI5: how can facial skin be dry and oily at the same time? (12/12/2019) ~ Explain Like I'm Five

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If you over wash your face or use a cleaner that is a stringent, your skin becomes overly dry and your body over produces oils to compensate. I used to have a pretty wicked case of the issue you are describing. I found that a sensitive face wash without any type of salicylic acid to be best (burt’s bees foaming cleanser works great for me)


Water. The oil is there to prevent the evaporation of water (drying) of skin. If you wash away all the oil and water in/on your skin, it will be dry. Your body will re-cover the area with oils, but oil doesn’t replenish the water (just protects from evap). Use moisturizer immediately after washing and stay hydrated to combat dry skin. Personal opinion: you don’t have to use intense soaps/scrubs every day unless you have a specific medical condition you’re dealing with. Washing face with your usual body wash (usually much less harsh than soaps or deep cleansing face washes) is enough for daily routine.


You can be dehydrated and have naturally oily skin. You can be dehydrated and have naturally dry skin. It's an important distinction to figure out when caring for your skin.


Oil is not water. Oils allow the skin to retain moisture better. If you wash your skin too often with detergents, you are washing away the oil and water can evaporate easier. This tells your body to produce more oil and too much oil is not good for the skin either. If you leave soap on your skin for too long, you will get chemical burns. This tells a bit what the soap does. Water alone does no damage. The liquid soaps we have are concentrated and the amount used is much less than any advertisement or TV show or a movie shows us. The actual amount needed is often ten times less. This applies to washing up almost anything, hair, body, dishes... More elbow grease and less detergent, plenty of water. If one washes too much, don't quit cold turkey. Take time to give your body and skin to get used to the new regime. Your skin has loads of bacteria, no matter how much you wash. Healthy skin also has good bacteria covering it and it takes time to get that biome working for you and not against you. Washing too often with soap leaves behind bacteria strains that can take soap for longer time and can live from the excess oil being produces in between. In fact, if you have very, very steady routine they can evolve to form spores before you wash up, the next generation will survive the "purge". You are training them to be as effective as possible while the more benevolent and useful bacteria strains are constantly killed. If you stop right away, the "bad" bacteria colonies will explode in size.


Dry = lack of oil Dehydrated = lack of water You can have oily skin that is dehydrated because water is evaporating out of it (transepidermal water loss), which makes it feel “dry” because it’s dehydrated (needs water) even while producing oil.


TIL, Joseph Beyrle, an American Paratrooper, fought for both the US and the Soviet Union in WW2. He was captured in Normandy, sent to a POW Camp, escaped, joined the Red Army and liberated the camp he had just escaped from. He later met Marshal Zhukov and won the Purple Heart for his Service. (12/8/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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The Purple Heart is awarded for being wounded in the face of the enemy.


He was awarded the Order of the Red Banner by the Soviets for his service. Too bad he got discharged from the Army right away after the war. Wearing a prestigious Soviet award on his US uniform during the Cold War, it would have made quite the conversation piece.


Joe *was* the Cold War


He was from my hometown here in Michigan. His daughter was a teacher for a long time at my high school, and his son-in-law was the football coach for many years. It was always cool hearing stories about him and how incredible he actually was. I believe his son was the Embassador to Russia for awhile as well.


Love how his son later became ambassador to Russia. Seems appropriate.


How the GOP Became a Potent Force in Climate Science Denial – This is not an accident; it is the product of a massive, well-funded effort to preserve corporate wealth and power at the expense of meaningful action. As a result, our future is now at stake. (12/8/2019) ~ Futurology

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The specter of the Supreme Courts decision on Citizens United in 2010 will forever rear its ugly head in our lives. You don't want the government to influence every aspect of our lives? Guess what, it's already bought, anonymously, and you don't have a choice.


Just simply why would anyone listen to politicians “opinion” about climate science. Most of them have zero knowledge on most natural science, let alone climate science


They fail to understand that our future is theirs too!


If people are so bloody concerned why is there not overwhelming condemnation and all out boycotts of Black Friday consumerism? Why are people complaining about paying carbon tax ? put the money where the mouth . Why do we need iPhone 11? There’s lots of talk but not much walk . Individual and collective responsibility is up to people not the government. It’s a given corporations will guard their profits - but anyone with a stock portfolio or a pension fund invested in an oil company bears equal responsibility,


They know its true. They are trying to avoid blame for historical knowledge. If they admit fault, They are afraid then there will be punishment. The only real way forward is an amnesty. "Maybe you did or didn't know then. But, you do know now. Are you going to help? If not, now you are an obstructionist criminal. There will be punishment for _that_”


TIL of George Martonaro, a man who was sentenced to life without parole on non-violent charges. In his 32 years in the prison system, he learned dozens of subjects, taught numerous courses such as creative writing to over 8000 inmates, and authored more than 30 books. (12/11/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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From his wiki: > In 1984, on the advice of his attorney Robert Simone, Martorano pleaded guilty to 19 counts of drug possession and distribution. Martorano was subsequently advised by both the prosecution and the judge, John Berne Hannum, that this plea could result in a sentence of life without the possibility of parole. The prosecution, however, had only recommended a sentence of from 40 to 54 months. What a shit show. There's something amiss here. How can his lawyer be this incompetent?


What were his crimes?


Won't happen now. For-profit prisons charge insane prices for everything, including books. It's not about rehabilitation, it's about exploiting prisoners for profit.


Protip: When your Dad’s mob lawyer tells you to plead guilty to running a criminal enterprise selling cocaine, meth and quaaludes when you were only picked up for driving a truck with pot in it, don’t take the plea deal.


Life sentence for weed. But violent offenders walk free after a couple years. US Justice System is so fucked.


TIL that only 9% of all plastic waste ever produced has been recycled. (12/11/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Remember, also, that a large amount of plastic produced (plastic bags, laminated plastics, etc) are too difficult to recycle at most facilities. Further, there's a maximum amount of times most plastics can be recycled, and generally can't be returned to it's original quality. You know what would be great? Less disposable crap to begin with.


That's a much higher percentage than I would've guessed.


It sounds bad, but when you consider that plastic has been in heavy use for 70+ years and serious efforts to recycle it have been slowly growing over the past 20 or 30 years. And not all plastic created is instantly used and thrown away. Many things are made of plastic and used for decades.


In Germany politics count waste that is either burned or shipped to asia as recycled smh


Did you watch "Broken"? I literally just finished watching it a few hours ago


The Group – A Documentary (2015) – “This organization, while claiming to have rescued thousands of teens from the horrors of drug addiction, has been repeatedly accused of using cult-like practices to control its teenage followers and their concerned families.” [01:35:51] (12/11/2019) ~ Documentaries

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Holy shit. I did not know this documentary existed. I was in one of these groups. One of the guys caught on hidden camera was my counselor! I haven't watched the whole thing yet, but the first little bit is very accurate. In fact, if I do speak of it anymore I refer to the as "the cult I was in". Crazy! It was extremely cultish


Is this what that cult from that episode of Boy Meets World was based on.


I think I listened to a podcast about these guys. Creepy stuff.


Oh wow, these folks took some of my friends in the 90s


I hit a rough patch when I was 19/20 (putting it mildly) and I was sent for a year to a program just like this. Insane, surreal, and certainly a cult. They hide behind Jesus’ name to avoid taxes and transparency. It’s a clever cloak to hide the ethical violations of a “non-profit” (501c3)


TIL that while most air traffic communications around the world use the NATO phonetic alphabet (alpha, bravo, charlie, delta, etc), Atlanta doesn’t. Taxiways, Gates, and others including a ‘D’ are referred to as ‘Dixie’, so as not to cause confusion with Delta Air Lines. Atlanta is Delta’s hub. (12/13/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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November echo victor echo Romeo golf Oscar November November Alfa golf India victor echo yankee Oscar uniform uniform papa


The train that goes between the concourses in Atlanta uses David instead of Delta or Dixie.


So, in reality, Atlanta does use the NATO phonetic alphabet; they just changed one letter.


Dixie normous!


Well maybe in the aircraft world calling your airline Delta is not such a smart idea.


TIL as early as 1915 an African-American film industry ran paralell to the Hollywood mainstream, catering to the community’s segregated filmgoers. ‘Race movies’ had their own Black-owned studios, directors and popular stars – though the majority of these early film reels are lost or damaged today. (12/11/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Yes, the early days of cinema also had far more women as directors, scriptwriters and producers, but they were pretty much gone by the 50's. Hollywood is becoming more diverse now, but important to remember that in the beginning things were different.


Almost all films from that era are lost. The studios didn't think anyone would care, and burned the films to make space for newer releases.


Still waiting for that rerelease of “Trust In The Law!”


Fellow Vox YouTube subscriber, I see


Who watches the Watchmen?


Water, not Weapons (2017) – A Documentary on Dr. Tetsu Nakamura [50:00] Dr. Tetsu Nakamura was killed in Afghanistan Dec 4th, 2019 (12/9/2019) ~ Documentaries

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Considering how much money he could have earned in his native Japan as a doctor, he was a modern day saint.


The Taliban denies involvement in his death, and local authorities suggest the perpetrators are connected to Pakistan. The likely motive in that case relates to Dr. Nakamura's work irrigating in the arid Nangarhar region of Afghanistan utilizing the Kabul river -- which effectively diverts a significant volume of water away from western Pakistan (the Kabul provides as much as 25% of their supply). The entire world should be worried. This is just a tiny hint of the violence that will come as fresh water becomes more and more precious in the developing world with accelerating climate change.


His body returned to japan last night and made its way to Kyushu where he will be buried. His death has been all over the Japanese news.


Its terrible to see such a bad thing happen to a great human being like Mr. Nakamura. The people he helped in Afghanistan will remember him for sure. Rest easy my dude, you've done a lot.


# I salute to this brave and loving doctor


TIL On May 19, 1983, Diane Downs shot her three children and drove them at 5-7 mph to the hospital. Her 7 yr old daughter was already dead, her other 2 children were in critical condition. She’d also shot herself in the forearm. She claimed she’d been carjacked. She was sentenced to life plus 50 yrs (12/12/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Lead prosecutor adopted the two surviving kids..


She had another daughter between the crime and getting arrested. Luckily she was taken by the state, adopted, and renamed. She also maintains her innocence despite the mountain of evidence against her (part of which is testimony by one of her surviving daughters, who had to wait to *regain her ability to speak* in order to give said testimony). What a piece of garbage. She's up for parole in 2020 but will almost definitely be rejected because of this, as she was a decade ago.


Just watched a Ted Talk about spotting deception and they used a video of her as an example. When she was done describing how horrible it was driving to the hospital with her bleeding child, she made this chilling smile afterward that is gonna take me a few days to get out of my nightmares.


This is why I have not said or will never say "Everything happens for a reason" when bad things happen


Read Ann Rule's book on it, Small Sacrifices, excellent book. There was also a made for TV movie/mini-series about it starring Farrah Fawcett, it's worth a watch if you can find it.


TIL that Senator John Ashcroft is the only Senator to lose reelection to a dead person. His opponent died in a plane crash 2 weeks before the vote and his name was unable to be taken off the ballot. (12/10/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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I voted for his opponent! I’d rather have a dead man in office than Ashcroft.


Missourians were slammed a bit in the media for not knowing that Mel was gone and voting for a dead candidate, not true at all... we voted for Mel anyway, knowing his wife Jean would be appointed in his place.


And this fucking guy later became Attourney General to Dubya and together they made the fucking PATRIOT act one of the most scummiest POS law (or act) that was ever made. Dubya put a guy into the DOJ that lost TO A DEAD PERSON.


Let the eagle soar


John McCain did a rock solid impersonation of Ashcroft in an SNL skit.


TIL “fox tossing” was a favorite pastime of 18th century aristocrats. A couple would stand apart, with a length of cloth between them, and wait for a fox to be herded between them. At the right moment, they would pull the cloth tight, hurling the fox skyward. Whoever sent the fox highest, won. (12/10/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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18th century Aristocrats did the weirdest shit


> The tossing of foxes and other animals was not without risk to the participants, as it was common for the terrified animals to turn on the people taking part. Wildcats were particularly troublesome; as one writer remarked, they "do not give a pleasing kind of sport, for if they cannot bury their claws and teeth in the faces or legs of the tossers, they cling to the tossing-slings for dear life, and it is next to impossible to give one of these animals a skilful toss" TIL that 18th Century aristocrats had mental issues, like the cast of Jackass.


'videogames cause violence'


Reminds me of dwarf tossing, still popular today in New Zealand.


It's strange cause Animal rights laws started to be passed in the 17th century but I guess they didn't extend to foxes.


Are there any examples of well attested and complete dead religions that at some point had any significant following? (12/10/2019) ~ History

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In the US the Shakers. Basically a Christian religion that didn't believe in sex. That is right, no sex. Spent a lot of time building high quality furniture. I guess since they were not having sex or raising kids they had a lot of free time.


Why not start with the Greco/Roman pagan religions? Should be plenty of source material


The obvious answers are Greco-Roman Paganism, Norse Paganism, and maybe the ancient Egyptian and Aztec religions. Zoroastrianism isn't completely dead yet, but it comes pretty close. If you count heretical sects, there are the Arians and Cathars, among several other large heretical Christian sects. There are also several small tribes that had their religion well documented, despite not having their own written tradition. The Hokkaido Ainu are reasonably well documented. I'm sure there are many native American tribes that have been similarly well documented


Not exactly a completely separate religion, but Sadducees were an interesting sect of Second Temple Judaism who did not believe in the resurrection (and possibly not in any sort of afterlife), and only held the Pentateuch (the first five books of today's Bible) to be scripture. They died out with the destruction of the Jerusalem temple in 70 AD


Zoroastrianism is the best example I can think of. From the little I know it was one of the first major religions and shared a lot in common with religions around today. (Mainly Christianity but haven’t looked too much into it). Not completely dead as it has around 100k followers but that’s pretty damn dead to me lol.


TIL that there are claims that Jesus switched places with his younger brother Isukiri for his crucifixion, escaped to Japan at the age of 21 where he married a farmer’s daughter, had three kids, and died at the ripe old age of 106; His remains are said to be buried in the town of Shingo. (12/11/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Isukiri sounds like a judaic name if I've ever heard one.


And the remains of 17 of the 12 apostles are buried in churches in Spain. Sometimes people lie about this stuff.


The Mormons believe Jesus came to America during the 3 days between death and resurrection. I always liked that one...of *course* Jesus came to America! I mean, it’s America! E: apparently it was after resurrection. I read the Book of Mormon once 10 years ago for a project. Oops! There are definitely zombie Native Americans though.


To anyone unfamiliar with Christian lore, this is amusing because it completely negates both purposes of Jesus. If he doesn't get crucified he can't absorb and delete humanity's sins. If he switched places with his brother to escape death, his message of self sacrifice loses all weight. Christianity was imported to Japan in the 1500's and quickly spread. It was mostly stamped out when Japan unified and cut itself off from the world, around 1620. This sect somehow survived and I can only assume played religious telephone for a few hundred years to arrive at its current state.


Anime adaption incoming.


TIL Hall of Fame Pitcher Nolan Ryan played from 1966 until 1993. He was 19 when he debuted and 46 when he retired. (12/9/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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He was also 46 when he beat down Robin Ventura, 26 at the time, who stormed the mound after being hit by a pitch.


Nobody is ever breaking that career strikeout record. They just don't let pitchers throw that many innings anymore. A pitcher would have to play until 55 to break it now.


>Ryan was a right-handed pitcher who consistently threw pitches that were clocked above 100 miles per hour (161 km/h). He maintained this velocity throughout his career, even into his 40s. Ryan was also known to throw a devastating 12–6 curveball at exceptional velocity for a breaking ball. Goddamn, I would not want to go up to bat against him


Nolan Ryan has also struck out 7 pairs of fathers and sons during his career.


Nolan Ryan is *the* genetic freak to come out of the baseball diamond. Pitchers can throw hard, they can throw for a long time, they can get crazy movement on their pitches. Usually you have a pick 2 of 3 of these traits, along with a 4th option of having immaculate control, something Ryan clearly never even thought of putting his stat rolls into. For the others however, Ryan had all 3, and put the sliders to 11 on each. Nobody had a longer continuous career in the majors. *Nobody* threw as hard as he did, either before or since. "But stormy, he doesn't have the fastest pitch record." Because in his time record keepers forgot about air friction. Pitches slow down as they approach home plate, and these days pitchers have speeds recorded immediately after leaving the hand. Ryan was measured right as his pitch reached home plate, when it is anywhere from 5-9mph slower. He still had a pitch speed record no lower than 101mph, meaning at the bare minimum he's throwing at least 106 and making everyone else look like beer league casuals. We can't accurately translate these velocities to what they would be read as today; too many variables exist, so this estimation will have to do. Ryan also held this speed at all points in a game, as a starting pitcher with hundreds of complete games and 300 inning seasons, in a time where 200 pitch outings were considered normal. Starters cannot pitch at max effort, they wouldn't make it 30 pitches in on that strain to their body, let alone a season. Nolan could throw even harder if he went all out. Two established pitchers in the majors are currently known for exceeding 100mph regularly from the starting rotation. Only just barely though, and one is frequently shelved with injury. Ryan did this for **27 years** before finally blowing his arm out on his penultimate pitch. Yes, i said penultimate. Because after his arm finally gave out on him midway through his final start, the freak of nature tried to keep on throwing. He wound up for one more before calling it a career. The velocity of that final pitch? *98Mph.* A speed 90% of all pitchers today can't even touch in their absolute best years, at 46 years young, and with a broken arm searing with the pain of torn muscle, cartilage and tendons. But Ryan was not pure speed. A straight fastball is plenty hittable no matter how fast it is. Within the limits of human biology no pitch can be thrown fast enough to beat a hitter that knows when it's coming and where it is going. Ryan's fastball was far from straight, however. It had a tailing action that would make a knuckleball look tame. It would start off the plate on the 1st base side of the zone, and end up inside of the 3rd base edge of the strike zone by the time the catcher caught it. No wonder he walked the world; they call him the Ryan Express because once up to the plate, you were very quickly handed an express ticket to either first base or the dugout. It also had tons of rise like a good power fourseam should. The amount of torque required on the seams of a baseball to generate the spin rate to make a pitch dance like that is almost inhuman. No one can come close in today's game for that combination of speed and movement. Nolan did it naturally, with a pitching mechanic that was free of all the advanced research of today's game. And his curveball, woof. It was high 70's, low 80's, and the floor simply dropped out from it. It should have been equally famous as Koufax's hook. Starting at eye level and ending up below the strike zone. The best curves of today can match that drop, but they are slower; 70-75mph, giving more time for the pitch to move in the air. Faster curves are tighter, more resembling slow sliders. Again, that *spin rate*. The fact that nobody before or since has appeared in the game, despite how much more we know about the science and medicine to make pitchers stronger speaks for itself. Nolan Ryan is not a once in a lifetime genetic anomaly. His ability was once in *lifetimes.*


TIL ice-cream manufacturers mix messed up batches of ice-cream in with chocolate ice-cream so they don’t have to throw it away (12/9/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Not surprising if you have ever worked in manufacturing. Most companies have blendback ratios that are acceptable as long as it doesn't effect taste or food safety. Edit: The affect seems to be stimulating conversation. I'm leaving it.


> The FDA allows, for instance, an average of 225 insect fragments or 4.5 rodent hairs per 8 ounces of macaroni or noodle products. An average of 20 or more maggots of any size is permitted per 3.5 ounces of drained canned mushrooms, or per half-ounce of dried mushrooms. When it comes to mold, an average count of 15 percent is OK for canned cranberry sauce. I knew there were limits. I did not realize these limits were insanely tolerable of contamination.


This practice is standard in food manufacturing. It is planned for as you will never be able to use 100% of what you make, charts are created to advise what scrap/rework/overage goes where.


I'd be willing to bet that a lot of the best flavors were an accident at one point. Goddammit, Jerry!! Why the hell did you just dump a bunch of cookie dough into the chocolate chip?????


Saw a British TV show where they went to the Kit Kat factory. Turns out the ganache kinda stuff in between the wafers is made from crushed up KitKats that don't meet quality standards at the end (broken, missing chocolate etc). Thought it was quite cool.


TIL that if graffiti covers the identification numbers on a railcar the company has to repaint it. Artists have since stopped painting over them as a way to preserve their art longer. (12/10/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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I went to a model train show 2 weeks ago and noticed they now make "graffiti" decals that can be apllied to the sides of the cars and saw one of the guys putting them on a tanker car and giving it a distressed paint job. I told him they're finally making them look realistic because ive never seen a train without at least one tag.


I feel like railway companies have missed out on a huge opportunity to sell the sides of railway cars for advertisement space.


>“I think it’s a great self-expression,” said Paul Chelstad, a Sioux City artist who painted graffiti art in New York in the 1980s. “It’s like a moving art gallery for these artists no matter where they are. They move around and get seen a lot. If you do it on a wall, it just sits there.” >Chelstad enjoys the colorful distractions. >“Doesn’t everybody like that?” he said. If well drawn art, it might be enjoyed. If it's a shitty tag spelling out something in letters no one can read, maybe not so much


Is it art we’re typically getting on the side of rail cars?


The numbers aren't painted though, they're vinyl stickers. Source: did a 60 hour high school work experience in a vinyl shop and peeled a ton of them.


When Did Humans Start Using Seconds, Minutes, and Hours as the Standard Unit of Time? (12/9/2019) ~ History

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Ancient Sumeria was fond of the numbers 12 and 5. This gradually defined their use of a base 60 numbering system. As the area was conquered, reclaimed, or otherwise changed hands, the advanced Sumerian mathematics made its way into other cultures. Even as math moved forward, coagulating into the base 10 systems that we use today. The daily use of bases 12 and 60 for time keeping (360 day Calendars, 12 hour days, 12 hour nights) was too commonplace at that point to change, so it was just a matter of subdividing within the already defined mathematical base. Bit of trivia. A moment was actually a unit of measurement that strayed from the base 12 division, being a 40th of a solar hour. This would put it at approximately 90 seconds on average.This usage was abandoned after the prevalence of mechanical clocks, and the commonplace adoption of the minute. Edit: Grammar


Back in Mesopotamia, they used water clocks. Same with other societies with different tweeks here and there. So like 600bce


Follow-up question: How do we stop this madness and institute purely decimal time? Because right now we have this crazy mixed radix system using >... 10, 10, 10, 60, 60, 24, 365(ish), 10, 10, 10, ... At the very least we could move to a 10 hour day with 100 minutes per hour and 100 seconds per minute. In a happy coincidence, that would leave the length of the second almost unchanged.


To expand upon this question, when did the 7 day week become standardised? It seems pretty arbitrary,


You should listen to the podcast The Secret History of the Future. Most recent episode is about clocks and the history.. and future.. of timekeeping.


TIL Despite being a popular fad, Gluten-Free diet is not healthier for people who do not have gluten intolerance or allergy “For the general population, the presence or absence of gluten alone is not related to diet quality. What’s important are the overall food choices made within a diet” (12/10/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Yeah, specialty diets are only really beneficial to small subsets of the population. About the only thing that's generally healthy for pretty much everyone is, "eat lots of non-starchy veggies." But that's unpopular.


True, but please don’t ignore requests for gluten free food. There is a small population of people who have celiac disease who truly can’t have gluten. Don’t screw them because you don’t “believe” in gluten intolerance.


I knew a couple of people who would go on and on about how they "felt so much healthier" after going gluten free ... and switching from subsisting off of pizza and frozen burritos to actually cooking and eating vegetables. Same with paleo and various other diet schemes. But shrug, if it makes you pay more attention to what's in your food and make healthier choices, then that's a good thing regardless of whether your rationale is "wrong". And the explosion of GF options has made my friend with coeliac's pretty happy.


I will say that the gluten-free fad has been immensely beneficial though for people who do have a legitimate gluten sensitivity. There's lots more variety than there used to be.


There is a decent theory that those avoiding gluten are getting some advantage because it's actually FODMAPs which are their problem, and glutenous foods tend to be FODMAP foods. So the source is misidentified, but the impact may plausibly exist. Bottom line though is that people should eat foods which make them feel better, and avoid things which make them feel worse. Something being perfectly healthy doesn't mean it makes you feel good to eat it. Some people will have a harder time digesting some foods. Doesn't mean those foods are somehow something unhealthy, but does make sense that the person would avoid foods that makes them feel bad. For my own part, bread is the staff of life, and it makes me feel better when I eat it, so I eat it. Ice cream makes me feel very bad, so I don't eat it. Real rocket science stuff.


How come the Romans were able to impose their language onto France, Iberia and Romania, but not on Greece, the Middle East or North Africa? (12/12/2019) ~ History

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Greece, the middle east and even Magna Greece was culturally part of the hellenic world. A civilization the Romans respected, borrowed from and had long contact with. They were not considered barbarian. Moreover it was not unusual for roman citizens to study greek language and history. On the other hand the same can not be said about other places they conquered.


Adding up to Maldamba84's answer middle eastern kingdoms were ruled by clientes pf Rome for most of their existence ,that means that aside collecting taxes and stopping large scale invasions Rome didn't really interfere with the life of their citizens, and they were ruled by collaborative native kings or governments. the same thing cannot be said about the western provices who frequently fell under direct roman occupation that's why in the west they had to learn latin while in the east there wasn't this necessitiy. That's actually the main motivation


The (Hellenistic) east already had a longstanding tradition of a highly developed *urbanised* society by the time the Romans came. The western stretches of the empire on the other hand lacked this. While the material development of parts of Gaul had taken off due to increased contact with the Mediterranean world, it is not as it the oppida of the Aedui (to pick one of Rome’s closest allies) could compete with the likes of Antioch or Pergamom. Urbanisation in the western part of the Empire was mostly a Roman programme, an effect of incorporation into the Empire and thus culturally, the impressing of a Roman cultural stamp on the area. This was not a probably course of action in the east, mostly because it was not necessary. So fundamentally in a general perspective, the eastern and western parts of the Empire knew a very different material and socio-economic situation, which made for a different evolution upon the inception of Roman power. Where urban centres were absent - and thus the consequence of Roman intervention - they would logically follow Roman conventions, and promulgate the Roman concepts of culture. In the east there was little need to do so, the already very developed societies leaving little room for it. Latin here would be a thin overarching layer untill the days of Heraclius. Added to this, Rome did not seek to impress her culture on others *if they did not want too*. Respect the authority of the Romans (Republic or Imperial), go about your lives, pay taxes, don’t revolt - we’re all good, so you can be Jews worshipping Jahweh, Egyptians worshipping Isis, Thracians worshipping Dionysius and speak whatever language you want, or adhere to whatever culture you so choose. Rome does not inherently care (and if you do revolt like the Jewish people - enjoy exile, cause Rome doesn’t joke around) - it’s only if you want to be part of Roman culture, that you’ll make the effort. This last part is not unimportant as the “reach” of Graeco-Roman civilisation was predominantly an urban one. Entire groups of people living in the rural hinterland were never fully part of it, and would never be fully part of it until the end of Roman power, both in the east and the west. It may lastly also be observed that in some cases the disappearance of Roman power knew *very different patterns*: many of the areas being overrun by the Germanic successors were for all intents and purposes in some ways still part of the Roman koine - Whether Odovacar or Theoderic, they claimed to be legitimate successors to Rome and Roman authority, seeking legitimation from Constantinople and making use of Roman institutions for a few more generations. The conquest of the east by the Islamic forces however displaced the old Roman elites and did not seek any sort of link to Roman authority, their ties lay elsewhere.


The Romans wanted their empire to have a lingua Franca for administrative purposes. The West did not have one, so they imposed Latin. The East already had Greek, so it was counter-productive to replace it. That being said, Latin was added to inscriptions and stuff and even teached in schools (we have evidence of this from Egyptian papyri) and it's likely that the Elite of the eat learned Latin. But that's it, so the empire was primarily Latin-speaking in the West and Greek-speaking in the East. Dacia did not have greek as lingua franca, so Latin was imposed after its conquest. For the second part of your question, my answer is the following. It seems to me that Germanic peoples that settled in the territories of the Roman world decided to adopt the Roman language, unlike the Slavs and Arabs. This is possibly a consequence of the fact that the Germanic invasions really started with the goal of migrating into the Roman Empire. In other words, the Germans that first migrated (and then created kingdoms in the Roman world) did not want to destroy ancient Rome. The OstroGoths/Lombards in Italy mantained Latin, and so did the Visigoths/Franks in Gaul. My guess is that the Goths that settled in Dacia hundreds of years before did the same. The Balkans were take by Slavs, while the Iberian peninsula was taken by Arabs so new languages were imposed. However, in the case of Spain and Portugal the "reconquista" by Christian resisting forces took place and it was not just a military recoquest, but a cultural-linguistic one too.


Just one addition to this which I haven’t seen elsewhere in the thread: a version of Latin known as Romance African was spoken in North Africa in late Roman time, and coexisted with the Vandals and Arabs for some time. It was centered in the urban areas where the Romans had been most present, in the countryside Berber was spoken. Eventually the Roman-Africans were assimilated by the Arabs, particularly under the Almohads, but a significant Roman substrate remains within both the Berber language and Maghrebi Arab (the local version of the Arab language which has some differences from the Arab spoken in the Mashriq for example). There too in a way the Roman/Latin language still lives on.


TIL We don’t get all of our drinking water from the ocean because it costs $1-2 dollars per cubic meter (264 gallons) to desalinate ocean water, while only costing 10-20 cents to purify fresh water. (12/9/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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I would have guessed that it was more than 10 times as expensive to desalinate... so in my book we already made a big leap forward! Not sure how exciting that is to all of you though...


So... Fresh water won't necessarily ever be in shortage, it'll just be more expensive?


Maybe my goal in life will be to find an easier way to desalinate water


I don't understand why the coastline isn't full of passive solar stills just calmly evaporating clean water out of salt water all the time.


> It's hard to put an exact dollar figure on desalination—this number varies wildly from place to place, based on labor and energy costs, land prices, financial agreements, and even the salt content of the water. It can cost from just under $1 to well over $2 to produce one cubic meter (264 gallons) of desalted water from the ocean. That's about as much as two people in the U.S. typically go through in a day at home. The best bit from the article!


Sikh-Americans pledge to plant 100 forests in India to combat climate change. EcoSikh has planted 120 mini forests of 550 trees of native species in Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Delhi, Jammu and Chandigarh (12/13/2019) ~ Futurology

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Sikhs are some of the best, most decent human beings I have ever met. This news doesn't surprise me.


Good on them. Trees are the answer. Earth once had 3 trillion trees, now just 1 trillion. Bringing the count back up by a trillion would provide fundamental benefits such as carbon capture, air and water filtration and habitat for endangered species. For our own sake the term Earthling should be synonymous with Forest Steward.


First off, it's always great to see groups working to do good in the world. Now, to my fellow redditors. At the time of this reading there are about 12 comments here and 10 of them are something along the lines of "instead they should have..." or "this isn't the answer, X is..." or even "they better also be doing..." to which I very kindly and with most cordially due respect invite them to eff right off.


This is great, but like many similar efforts, the problem is keeping the trees alive not planting them in the first place. I stopped giving to carbon offset programs in part because I read up that they all report the trees they planted but that there's no plan in place to even make sure the trees get to adulthood. For example, trees need water, but no NGO gets praised for watering trees only for planting trees. So there's no accountability and maybe this actually increases carbon (shipping the baby trees, driving them out somewhere, only to have them die after their first year).


Sikhs kick ass, even though they could slash ass with that sword of theirs.


How did the Ancient Greeks workout? (12/10/2019) ~ History

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yeah they actually did workout for aesthetics as well. In their public gymnasiums they had statues of “ideal” body types for men on display to serve as inspiration for the people working out in attaining a body of that type.


Some people definitely exercised in "formal" ways. Sports per se were described, to my understanding, as a pursuit of the wealthy (read: people who didn't have to do manual labor the whole day), at least in some periods, but there was javelin and discus throwing, wrestling, boxing, horsemanship, etc. Your average person might have just had to do a lot of manual labor as part of their job. It seems likely that even non-"athletes"sometimes ran or wrestled or swam for entertainment or because the village/neighborhood was having a little competition, if only because people have done that sort of thing everywhere for pretty much all of human history. Most people in most places who can't go home and watch TV tend to make their own entertainment and in ancient Greece it seems reasonable that a lot of that would have been physical in nature, if maybe for a smaller % of the time or less systematic than an athlete's training. As far as techniques or exercises, well, we know a LITTLE - long jumpers apparently used hand weights called halteres to help get distance and possibly in more dumbbell-like ways, for instance. You generally don't see a lot of surviving specific "workout routines" because, well, it's the ancient world and we don't have complete sources. But even the word gymnasium is from Greek; it described a place where competitors in public games (like the Olympiad) went to train. Based on art and surviving sources you can expect that wrestlers wrestled a lot, boxers boxed a lot, jumpers jumped a lot, etc. Most training would presumably be doing your sport, or if you were not an "athlete" just going about your normal day and having the aforementioned occasional game/competition around the village. However, we can be reasonably sure people at times did more general calisthenics or acrobatics or picked up and carried heavy things, etc, if only because various stories or bits of art describe people doing exactly those things. But can we say that the ancient Mykenaeans were specifically big fans of the Jefferson Deadlift or that Thebes was notable for their preference for high rep pushups? No.


I've never heard of ancient Greeks weight lifting but I'll bet it was done in some form. They did have gymnasiums which were a place to practice sports but was also a meeting place for people to discuss politics or whatever. Popular Greek sports included running, javelin throwing, boxing and wrestling among others. I'm sure many Greeks worked as farmers or other physically demanding jobs which I'm sure gave them enough of a daily workout. However women would probably not be allowed to participate in sport or gymnastics in most city states. Sparta is an exception to this as Spartan girls went through an state run education program similar to the boys that included physical activities like gymnastics and dance along with non-physical activities like poetry and whatnot.


I think it's Arrian or Plutarch that wrote of Alexander's "workout" of running behind a chariot with driver and jumping on and off again for "cardio." The sarrisa/shield formations would likely do for the upper body and core. But don't forget that becoming very large muscled men was not sought after. The large Hercules type guys were often reserved for entertainment as oddities since they couldn't run the many miles required by a march and would be calorie gluttons during an often slim diet on campaign.


I heard about men carrying big jars full of dirt to exercise.


(2015)Tulsa Oklahoma Black Wall Street Race Riots.(42.30) (12/10/2019) ~ Documentaries

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Race *Massacre FTFY.


Watchmen on HBO touches on this. Very good series!


My great grandfather and his family lived through this. He hid his family in a giant commercial ice cream freezer. It worked. Otherwise I may not have existed.


They systematically kept us down, not only with citizens and violence, but with politics as well. There were factions in congress after the civil war that were against giving colored people rights. They robbed black people of their labor power, robbed native americans and asians of their resources, then blocked us out of the prosperity that produced. Then somehow said it's our fault we're down 😒. They act like just cuz it's 2020 we all started from square 1, and completely disregard all this past plundering and oppression that created our different monetary and social standings in the first place


Massacre. It was a massacre. Not a riot. It’s actually amazing that blacks and whites get along as well as we do in this country when you consider all of the lynchings and violent bullshit like this that went on. Just finished a podcast on this event. We never talked about it in school, and I had only ever heard about it in passing. Holy shit...


TIL the Honeycrisp apple was thrown away by the University of Minnesota research team and rescued from a trash pile by one of the researchers. (12/11/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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It's the only apple I eat. The red ones have a weird texture I don't care for.


If only this had happened with Red Delicious. And by that I mean "all red delicious apples and seeds were cast into radioactive fires and shot into the sun"


Wtf that is my favorite apple and it almost didn't exist 🤯 somewhere in a parallel universe I am crying and eating a fuji


The whole article is really worth a read. I didn't realize the world of apple varieties was so intense. apparently Honeycrisps are a pain in the butt to grow but there's so much demand.


> Size can also be an issue. “The fruit tends to grow very big,” said Mark Nicholson ... “That’s good, but at a certain point the consumer doesn’t want to buy an apple the size of a grapefruit.” i'm sorry but you couldn't be more wrong, you fucking bet i want an apple the size of a grapefruit. The real problem with growing them that big is that its almost certainly less profitable since the packing density would be less and the bigger apples probably bruise easier.


TIL of a poodle that fell 13 stories, hitting and killing and elderly woman. A second woman was killed after a bus hit her as she came to see the incident, and a man died of a heart attack after witnessing the events. (12/9/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Was the dog ok?


Sounds like Final Destination remake


And what do you call your act? The aristocrats!


I'm more fascinated by the ancient Greek guy who was killed when a flying eagle mistook his bald head for a rock and dropped a tortoise on it


I thought it was a man that got hit. I remember the funny headline "man killed by best friend".


TIL about the Yao tribe who calls for a specific bird species to find them bees nests, after which the tribe takes the honey and leaves the wax for the birds in a rare case of human mutualism with wild animals. (12/8/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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>When a honey guide finds its treasure deep in the forest, it flies to the nearby Yao settlement and starts calling its human partner by a loud chattering call, a call that is different from their usual territorial sounds. Along with the call, they distinctly gesture the direction in which the beehive is located by flitting from tree to tree, until their human follower follows them and finds the tree with the bee’s nest. By themselves, they are incapable of stealing the wax from a beehive. But with collaboration with humans, they get the delicious wax, while the human partner gets the honey.


If you don't leave something for the bird, next time it would lead you to a lion. So the legend goes.


But... what about the poor bees? 🙁


Do the birds eat the wax? Also, this is just crazy. It goes to show the connection humans could have with nature if we took the time to pay attention rather than just destroy it.


The story of the birds and the bees is very different there


Rick Steves’ European Christmas (2005) From England to Wales, France, Norway, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and Italy, you’ll see the bright Christmas markets, hear local choirs, share holiday traditions with families…and even play in the snow (12/13/2019) ~ Documentaries

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My first trip to Europe I brought the Rick Steves Guide to Italy which my mom gave me for Christmas. I had never heard of the guy before that. My friends made fun of me relentlessly for being a nerdy tourist walking around with this travel book. After a couple days I convinced them to go to the Capuchin Crypt in Rome on Rick Steves recommendation. It was this metal as fuck crypt underneath a church that is built out of 4000 skeletons of monks. There are bone chandeliers, mummified monks, altars made out of skulls, a skeleton grim reaper with a shoulder blade scythe hanging from the ceiling... We were completely blown away! The entire rest of the trip my friends treated the Rick Steves book like the fucking Bible and wanted Rick Steves input on every place we went to. This was pre-cellphone days so we had literally just this book to get us around the country - Rick Steves is a legend! My mom was pretty stoked that we actually used her book too!


Rick Steves has my dream job.


Rick is an excellent human being. He's been a family friend for decades since he taught my aunt piano lessons before he ever got in the travel game. I went to school with his kids growing up and happen to currently be waiting to fly to Europe tomorrow in my hometown of Edmonds, Wa where he resides. Since he's found fame and fortune he has remained extremely down to earth and contributes generously to a significant amount of causes close to his heart. He's well loved in the community and is just as giving with his time as he is his money. He's the kind of human story that makes sense from a just universe point of view. You wouldn't begrudge him becoming wealthy by touring around Europe and telling people all about it if you knew him. I think that comes through in his video persona but just in case it doesn't I can tell you that he is the real deal.


If you ever have the chance to experience Christmas in Austria don’t miss it! It is magical.


Rick Steves is a fucking boss. I’ve always loved his travel docs, ever since I was a little kid. It would be a blast to smoke a joint with him and hear the travel stories he doesn’t put on camera.


TIL Many of the tracks to The Lord of the Rings score features choirs singing in Tolkien’s fictional languages, such as Sindarin, Khuzdul and Rohirric, the lyrics of which often reflecting what is happening on screen, and usually written as a poem. (12/9/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Tolkien would be clapping in his grave.


Not surprising. There are quite a few songs and poems written in the books.


I sang this live with an orchestra, for Return of the King. Epic damn experience, and the lyrics aren't that hard to perform, there's a decent transliteration provided with it.


Tolkien never wrote a grammar or dictionary of Khuzdul so how could they sing in that language? Or is it one of those things Christopher found and published written on his dad's grocery lists?


That soundtrack is a work of art


TIL of 15 yo Mary Vincent, who in the 70’s hitched a ride with a stranger. She was then brutally assaulted in the van, had both of her arms chopped off, and was then thrown over a cliff to die. She miraculously survived and later faced her attacker in court. (12/13/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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I miss 10 seconds ago when I didn't know this


Horrifying. Can you imagine thinking that any amount of “good behavior” in prison outweighed the fact that he brutally assaulted a teen girl then *chopped off her arms and threw her off a cliff*? And then some other woman got attacked and murdered when he got released early thanks to the genius who made that decision. So awful.


8 out of 14 years served?


> Released from prison on good behavior after serving 8 years of his 14-year sentence, he went on to murder Roxanne Hayes, a mother of three. What the actual fuck? How broken can one legal system be???


The secret of Mary's survival was that the axe used to chop off her arms was dull, which crushed the blood vessels shut, limiting bleeding from the injuries.


TIL Bill Nye originally got his break into the Entertainment industry after 4 times of being rejected to join NASA’s astronaut training program in the late 70’s, and stumbled into a new career path by winning a Steve Martin look-alike contest in 1978 that launched his career into stardom. (12/11/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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I love this man, but he looks nothing like Steve Martin.


But things really got going on Almost Live. Speedwalker!


Steve Martin, the face that launched of a thousand careers.


Disney recently got caught trying to fuck Bill Nye. They gave him a check for like 600k for Bill Nye the science guy the show. Then sent him a letter that said oops you should write us a check for 500k we gave you too much. Well that was total bullshit so he got a audit and turns out Disney owes Bill $9 million. So now he is sueing them for $22 million. Yay Disney


Not a scientist, not an astronaut, not a Steve Martin look-alike.


TIL sex traffickers have been known to implant their victims with RFID chips similar to the RFID chips implanted in pets that help identify pets if they are lost. (12/12/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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For anyone who didn't RTFA or missed the key part... Those chips don't work anything like most people believe and nothing like most tv shows/movies show them. (to my knowledge, which is a few years old and I am not an expert but I do know a bit about the technology as I've developed some related software). They don't have gps like your phone and the chips/people can't be located just because they have a chip. The chips are passive and don't have that kind of power. They simply store a tiny bit of information. You have to scan them with a device that has the power, hand scanners, and tons of others. But as far as I know, the chips have to be scanned when they return the ID info stored on them to the scanner. This obviously doesn't say anything about how horrific it is what's happening. And I cannot say why they're being used, probably for causing fear in the victims, most of whom probably don't realize that they cannot be used to track their location.


That's scary, imagine being someone's pet, forcefully.


Worked in the anti-trafficking field for 12 years have not seen or heard this. More likely tattoo, get pregnant, tracking apps on phones.


“Very plainly, human trafficking is when one person takes advantage of another person for some profit,” Under this definition, there's crazy amounts of trafficking.


Sorry if this sounds stupid, but I really can't wrap my head around the idea of someone owning someone else. Like "I captured you, so now you are my property", I just don't understand the logic happening. I promise it isn't virtue signaling, I just want to know what goes on in someone's mind who abducts these poor people.


TIL Thomas Jefferson had a copy of a 1734 edition Qu’ran in his private library. Historians believe he bought the book while studying law to better understand Islam’s influence on some of the world’s legal systems. (12/10/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Title is misleading. While he did purchase it while studying law, Historians attribute it to his interest in religion. The article--not the historians--suggest the reason because he may have wanted to see Islam's influence on law. Overall, this part of the article seems more opinion than fact. >Historians have attributed the third president’s ownership of the Muslim holy book to his curiosity about a variety of religious perspectives. It’s appropriate to view it that way. Jefferson bought this book while he was a young man studying law, and he may have read it in part to better understand Islam’s influence on some of the world’s legal systems.


Back when education was about a breadth of knowledge and not about a narrow understanding of one area


Hah! Not really. Most likely Jefferson obtained a Qu'ran in preparation for negotiations with the Muslim Barbary pirates who were kidnapping, enslaving, and holding for ransom American sailors. “In March 1785, Thomas Jefferson and John Adams went to London to negotiate with Tripoli’s envoy, Ambassador Sidi Haji Abdrahaman (or Sidi Haji Abdul Rahman Adja). When they enquired “concerning the ground of the pretensions to make war upon nations who had done them no injury”, the ambassador replied:” “ It was written in their Koran, that all nations which had not acknowledged the Prophet were sinners, whom it was the right and duty of the faithful to plunder and enslave; and that every mussulman who was slain in this warfare was sure to go to paradise. He said, also, that the man who was the first to board a vessel had one slave over and above his share, and that when they sprang to the deck of an enemy’s ship, every sailor held a dagger in each hand and a third in his mouth; which usually struck such terror into the foe that they cried out for quarter at once. “


why is it strange that an educated historical figure had more than 1 kind of holy book?


What do you know? A really smart guy that was kind of known for being a polymath would be interested in a varying subject from the norm. 😀