TIL the iconic Goldeneye 007 for the Nintendo 64 was created by only 9 people…. and 8 of them had never once worked on a video game before! (8/13/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Here's another one: Roller Coaster Tycoon was made by only one guy in his house, Chris Sawyer


Bonus TIL: The reason Goldeneye 64 was so wildly popular was clearly the introduction of multiplayer. And multiplayer wasn't even in the original plans. It was one guy on the dev team who figured "why not, right? the assets are all there, it's just a little more programming". So he, the one guy, put it together. And the publisher basically said "Yeah, sure, throw it in there". The thing that made that game a legend was a complete one-off afterthought.


If you liked Goldeneye 007 you owe it to yourself to check out Perfect Dark. It was initially started with the intention of being the sequel to Goldeneye 007, by the same studio, but they lost the license to publish under the 007 IP before it was complete. So they published the game with modified plot and characters instead, birthing Joanna Dark and that amazing game.


I would love to see this remastered.


I pulled the 64 out of the attic and had a game night with friends recently, goldeneye & smash bros with pizza and beer. It was awesome. I completely forgot how badly your thumbs get wrecked playing N64 though.


TIL in 2013, Australian blogger Belle Gibson claimed to have beaten brain cancer using ‘natural remedies’ — selling a cookbook to cancer patients with all her ‘secrets’. It was later revealed she never even had cancer, and was fined $410,000 by the Australian government for her deceptive practices. (8/12/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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2019 update : She has not paid the fines and enjoys holidays overseas paid by her current bf


She should have gone to jail. Her actions and lack of remorse may have lead to people's deaths or failure to seek proper medical care based on her lies and deceit to enrich herself at the expense of others. This person preys on the weak and vulnerable in ways that may lead them to death for profit. She's not just some conspiracy theorist, she made up a fake story, she lied, and it very likely harmed people.


It was all bullshit! Her having cancer, her having a cure for cancer! She hasn’t paid any of the fine. She apparently lives off government handouts now. Her rich ‘boyfriend allegedly pays for her bills and for her to jetset around the world. She is a shame to our country.


Just on a more broad note, don't take medical advice from anyone that's not a medical doctor! Anytime someone develops a medical problem people come out of the woodwork to tell them about how they or someone they knew were helped/cured using this 'one simple trick'. And they may believe it but this is the basis for the cause vs correlation problem. The most perfect example of this is the anti-vax movement.


My husband has stage 4 cancer and there are books and "cures" everywhere. There's someone new each week who shows up on my support board to try to make money off the dying. On the other hand, some people want the hope. We listened to the girl next to us in chemo tell the nurse all about how she was "treating" her husband with essential oils. Would be nice if there were *some* regulation...but we're just superstitious monkeys in the end.


TIL When Ringo Starr temporarily left the Beatles in 1968 because he felt side-lined, his fellow Beatles sent him a telegram telling him that he was the best drummer in the world and that they loved him. He returned, and found his drumkit covered in flowers, spelling out “Welcome Back, Ringo.”. (8/15/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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By contrast a few months later when George quit John said let's get Eric Clapton in to replace him.


>'Look man, you are the best drummer in the world *for us*.' Way to qualify that statement, Paul.


People love to shit on Ringo for his fairly simplistic drum lines but I think that really misses the point. The Beatles are great, and the drums are perfect for their songs. So the drum lines aren't technically complicated - so what? When you're making art the objective is to be *good*, not esoteric and hard to reproduce.


The "not even the best drummer in the Beatles" line is a myth btw. Never actually said by a beatle.


And I thought he only improved himself to "best drummer in the Beatles" status.


TIL that there’s a “dead spot” in the Black Sea where scientists have found ships as old as 1200 years preserved well enough to see chisel marks from original builder. (8/12/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Also the Black Sea is unique because it has 2 layers of water, the top one is a typical sea, full of life and oxygen and the bottom layer is completely devoid of oxygen and life, except maybe some hardy bacteria.


It's crazy that a ship from the year 800 is not only recognizable as its original form, but the wine in the cargo hold is still likely drinkable


*And now we go to the comments section. Let's see what the experts think.*


We used to call it the wet spot. Now I call it the dead spot.


Check out the Vasa in Stockholm!


Scientists Successfully Turn Breast Cancer Cells Into Fat to Stop Them From Spreading (8/11/2019) ~ Futurology

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So reddit, tell me why I’m seeing this now but will never hear about it being used in the field. edit: i’m sorry that this is a common reply to posts on this sub, i’m not an active member. please don’t pm me about it


In mice? <checks article> Yep. We are very good at curing diseases in mice. Diseases we give them.


This is very interesting. There is already some (non-RCT) evidence of Metformin increasing pCR rates when given during chemo (albeit only to diabetic patients because they needed to be on it). Perhaps this will build upon the cell metabolic/cytokine approach which has as of now been left by the wayside in favor of the new hotness: Immunotherapy. edit: I wonder now if the Metformin's beneficial results on previous patients was due to something like this and having a forced re-differentiation effect (which could easily be overlooked if it changed into a benign/inconspicuous cell type), and not what I have been assuming was some sort of "anti-Warburg" effect of reducing growth and proliferation... edit 2: Hey thanks for all the great discussion here guys. I just wanna make one thing clear for the future is that I wasn't diagnosed; it was my wife a couple years ago at 30. I love her dearly so my world was rocked hard back then. Everything I know or think I know was learned in that time. I apologize for any confusion! edit 3: Holy Heck, just noticed. Thanks for my first reddit gold!


Does this mean instead of losing their breasts in a mastectomy, women might end up with larger breasts because of breast cancer?


So are they actually gonna use this? I've seen so many cures for cancer get talked about but they never start using it.


TIL between 1970 and 1973, four Israeli fighter pilots translated The Hobbit from English to Hebrew to pass the time in an Egyptian prison, where they were held as POWs. The pilots’ translation was published commercially in 1977, and up until 2012 was considered the best Hebrew version of the book. (8/13/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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What happened in 2012?


For people wondering what happened in 2012: A professionally translated copy was released. While the newer copy is "more accurate", the old copy was translated in such a way that the excitement and emotions of the book were better conveyed.


Must be a trip to translate a book that's written in several languages to begin with.


Egyptian guard: hey! What do you guys think you're doing?! POWs: Translating the Hobbit? Egyptian guard: ... You may continue


That's how confinement makes magic.


TIL that ravens and wolves have formed a mutually beneficial relationship out in the wild. Ravens have been observed calling wolves to the site of dead animals so that the wolves will then open up the carcass and leave the scraps for the ravens once they’re finished. (8/11/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Didn’t Odin have both wolves and ravens as companions?


The most metal friendship


So ravens are learning how to train other animals. That's pretty cool. If they survive the upcoming global warming apocalypse I would bet on them being the next dominant species in a couple million years.


Odin is pleased.


The question is - do wolves have pet ravens or do ravens have pet wolves?


Today I Learned that you can’t find broccoli in the wild since it was created by humans by breeding it from wild cabbage. (8/15/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Ok what’s with all the broccoli posts today? I know it’s not National Broccoli Day today, that was in March. This is the fourth post about damn broccoli I’ve came across, all on different subs. EDIT: I feel like now I know way too much about broccoli than I ever intended to. It used to be just something I ate around on my plate and occasionally picked at. And now it’ it’s like a part of me.


And then someone said, "You know what, fuck it, this mustard still seems too chaotic and wild. I'm gonna breed me some mathematically perfect broccoli" and thus Romanesco broccoli was born.


Zuccini can't be found in the wild either, nor does corn. Those are cultivars of wild plants that got selectively bred by ancient mesoamericans.


Amazing. It's even more amazing that many of the fruits and vegetables... and even animals that we eat aren't found naturally "in the wild".


I just knew eating that stuff was unnatural 🙂


TIL that the real Top Gun School imposes a $5 fine to any staff member that quotes the movie (8/14/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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What's the fine per game of slow motion shirtless volleyball?


But what if they, in fact, feel the need for speed?


I like how they made the fine low enough that it's mostly just a minor inconvenience. I'm sure whenever they drop movie quotes now, they really make them count.


I would be like "here's $500" and randomly quote movie for next 2 weeks


Does a Val Kilmer air bite count?


Til After Nike released Air Jordan sneakers in 1985, the NBA banned Michael Jordan from wearing them because it’s colours didn’t match his team’s uniform. Nike supposedly paid the fine of $5000 the NBA charged Jordan each game so he would continue wearing them. (8/12/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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So essentially Nike was paying 5k per game for advertising, not bad


They could have changed the color of the shoes, but the controversy alone was easily worth five grand a game


I always wonder how sports leagues come up with fines. That amount of money isn’t much to certain players who make multi-million dollar contracts and it’s not like leagues themselves really need the money. What would it even go towards?


Remember "punishable by a fine" just means "legal for the rich." Just because it's something relatively innocent here doesn't mean it usually is.


During an interview on David Letterman, this topic came up and Dave asked why they were banned. Jordan's reply was, "Because there is no white in them." Dave respond, "Well there's no white in the NBA."


TIL that several months before Russell Crowe won the Oscar for Gladiator, the FBI warned him that the al-Qaeda were planning to kidnap him as part of a “cultural destabilization plot”. For nearly two years, the FBI guarded Crowe in public and refused to give him any details about the threat. (8/11/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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There was no plot the FBI just wanted to hang out with Russell Crowe


If such a plot did exist, I am assuming al-Qaeda would probably would have several targets in mind in case kidnapping Crowe was unsuccessful. I wonder who else they had in mind.


Time for Hollywood to make this movie! Starring Russell Crowe as the bodyguard 1, Gerard Butler as bodyguard 2 and Ben McKenzie as Russell Crowe.


Why he hasn't starred in a real life dramatization where he is kidnapped and escapes and kills them all is beyond me.


Same thing happened in WW2, Hitler wanted to kidnap John Wayne. The FBI however was able to intercept the message describing the plan. When two German agents came posing as producers or something to abduct Wayne, he held them at bay with an unloaded gun and FBI agents sprang from the closet and apprehended the pair, to whom he put the unloaded gun to ones head and pulled the trigger to scare them. Edit: it was Stalin/ KGB not Hitler


TIL In 1906, a Moroccan serial killer was sentenced to be walled up alive after he was found guilty of murdering 36 women (the bodies were found buried beneath his shop and garden). His cries for help were heard for two days before he went silent. (8/12/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Real life Cask of Amontillado


The word for the day is "immurement".


I used to do this all the time in The Sims.


The real horror is realizing that he probably didn't die when he went silent. He just wore his voice out and couldn't scream anymore. And then died in his own silence.


Do you want to be haunted by a serial killer ghost? Because that's how you get haunted by a serial killer ghost.


TIL that in 1907, French waiters went on strike for the right to have mustaches. In France prior to 1907, mustaches were a symbol of class and stature, while waiters were seen as lower class and thus – not mustache-worthy. (8/13/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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>Clean-shaven Parisian waiters. Ok, so we're just not going to talk about the clumsy waiter falling to the ground in that photo?


So the very year the waiters were allowed mustaches is the same year that mustaches stopped being a symbol of upper classes. I kinda feel bad for them.


Many years ago, I was visiting my home town in New England, and I went to my father's barber for a haircut. The barber was a greek immigrant, with a pronounced accent. He asked if I wanted my beard trimmed, and I said that I trimmed the beard myself. He offered to trim it free of charge. He said that he did not see many men with beards in America, but in Greece, a beard was a mark of manliness. I asked him why he didn't have a beard. He said that his wife didn't like beards.


Civil Rights is an ongoing, often painful, eternal struggle.


French waitstaff going on strike to adopt a symbol of pretension is like the most stereotypical thing I've ever heard.


TIL that Korean Air accidentally strayed into Soviet Airspace, leading to the plane being shot down. To prevent such a tragedy, US President Ronald Reagan declassified a critical military tech and that is how we got GPS for civilian use. (8/11/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Flight 7, or 007 if you’re more conspiracy minded. This was huge back then.


I had a penpal who died on that flight. I was in high school at the time and they set up a penpal exchange with a high school in Korea (common to help students learning English). She and I wrote back and forth for about 3 months over the summer. Her parents were also killed. I got a note back from her aunt in response to one I sent that she hadn't yet replied to explaining that she was on the flight.


what other tech do they have that could move humanity ahead like GPS? tires that don’t go flat? Air conditioned pants? Cell phone battery that lasts 1 week?


Other countries have or are setting up their own networks so they are not relying on the US. Russia, China and Europe have or are building a 24 satellite network India and Japan have geo synchronised satellites to provide better coverage in certain regions.


If I remember correctly the fighter pilot who shot it down claimed he fired warning shots, and that he believed it was a military craft until the day he died. He never stated regret or acknowledgement of the mistake.


TIL that the late professional wrestler Bam Bam Bigelow received second degree burns over 40% of his body while rescuing 3 children from a burning house and spent 10 days recovering in a hospital. (8/14/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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My brother and I met him at an airport in Harrisburg in (I believe) '95. He looked tired and pissed off but when we ask him if he was Bam Bam Bigelow he answered "Yeah. Do you boys want a photo"? He waited with us while my dad went and bought a disposable camera from the gift shop. We asked him so many questions about wrestling and he answered every single one of them after taking the photo. Awesome memory my brother and I share. Not surprised at all to hear he did this. Edit: Punctuation (thanks, btw).


When I was around 10 (20 years ago) Bam Bam was hired to do an appearance at a little league event I went to. It was right before his match with Goldberg who was a huge face at the time, and me and all my friends were walking around the area Bam Bam was in chanting GOOOOLDBERG GOOOOLDBERG. I noticed Bam Bam chuckling and trying to hide it, obviously getting a kick out of these dumb Goldberg marks but trying his best to not show it and stay in character. I remember thinking it was really weird that he would be laughing at Goldberg chants - shouldn't he be pissed or annoyed? It was really confusing to me, until my inevitable sad discovery a few years later that wrestling was all scripted. But it's still real to me dammit.


His ring attire his whole career prior to this was a unitard covered in flames, too. Spooooky.


I went to the same University as his son. I’ll never forget moving into my dorm and seeing Bam Bam Bigelow carrying a mini-fridge. Probably super obvious that my friends and I were staring and he came up to us and said: “Yes, I am Bam Bam.” Took pictures with us and all. Super nice guy!


But gone too soon.


TIL Jimi Hendrix’s contract for Woodstock stipulated that no act could play after him. The scheduled performance times went so far off that he didn’t take the stage until 9am Monday morning. Most people had already left, and only about 10,000 people actually saw him play. (8/14/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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He was also the highest paid act, at $18k, which would be over $100k today. Seems like I read he asked for something higher, was refused and settled for $18k.


The low audience could be partly due to the band on just before Jimi- Sha Na Na


Which is odd, considering about 50% of the people who were alive in 1969 say that they saw him perform there.


The organizers were $1,000,000 in debt for 10 years after the event happened until royalties from the performers paid it off.


Both of my parents saw Jimi live at Woodstock. They bought their tickets for next to nothing at the local grocery store. They never fail to remind me that they were there and that I wasn’t.


TIL Iron Man was considered such a minor character when Marvel Studios began developing the 2008 movie that about 30 writers passed on writing the script, and Marvel produced three animated “advertorials” to introduce the character and show audiences that he wasn’t simply a robot. (8/15/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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And Guardians of the Galaxy was like two tiers below Iron Man.


As a child of the 90's I remember that back then Spidey and X-Men were the real bread and butter for Marvel. That's why they got a good number of films before the MCU was even an idea in someone's head.


So, I've read some interviews with people who ask what the secret sauce of the MCU was, and a lot of them said something along the lines of; "Our focus wasn't to acquire a big name in comics and then rest our laurels on the big name, we took something that was lesser-known, and then it was on us to make a *good movie*, which maybe some of the other studios weren't prioritizing..." Go figure that focusing on the content rather than the brand name yielded success.


I told my son that Iron Man was really a second-tier character before the movie came out, and he didn't believe me. He was like, "But he's bigger than Batman!" He is now, son.


There was a good article where Jeff Bridges was interviewed and basically said they didn't even have a completed script and it was heavily done ad hoc with RDJ and Favreau making it up as they went


TIL that if you took out all of the empty space from between and within the atoms making up each human being, the entire human race would fit into the volume of a sugar cube. (8/11/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Forbidden sugar cube Thanks for the awesomeness!


I cannot comprehend this




If you remove *all* of the empty space, "the entire human race" would briefly become a tiny dimensionless black hole before evaporating into radiation... Edit: quite a few people misunderstanding and saying that the sugar cube would not be dense enough; OP said "would fit into", not " be the same size as". I fit into our galaxy, but I am not galaxy-sized.


And you think some people are really dense NOW?


TIL the Crips main founder was appalled to find his organization escalating from fist-fights of his era to gun fights, and hoped to build a truce with the Bloods before distancing himself and ultimately dying in a drive-by. (8/13/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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TIL The Crips were originally named The Baby Avenues.


I grew up in that area of Los Angeles and I remember my bus driver talking about the transformation of gangs. This was at the height of the rivalry in the 90s and I remember her saying how much things had changed from when she was in a gang.


There was a documentary on it years back. I think it was both the crips and bloods leaders talking about how they wanted gangs as in a group of friends, not gangs as in murder you and sell drugs. But when you live in poverty and can make more in a month than some people make in a year, what are you going to turn to?


Interesting, I've never really thought about the origins of the Crips & Bloods.


Something else I learned is that the only reason the crips were able to form is because the older street gangs had been completely stamped out by the Black Panther Party and US Organization.


TIL that not only is USA the 3rd most populated country in the world, but if it had ONE BILLION MORE people, it would still be the 3rd most populated country in the world. (8/12/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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This is the optimistic TIL. Last time this was posted, the poster said if the top 2 countries each had a billion people die instantly...USA would still be 3rd. Still technically true. But damn.


The wild thing is that China has about the same area. About 4 times the population, same area. The wilder thing is that India has about the same population as China. 4 times the population as the United States, but *about 1/3 the area of either China or the USA.*


TIL Canada has 1/10 the population of the USA


The really crazy one is Nigeria. Somewhere between 2050-2060, they will surpass the US in population.


Insane that Japan has the 11th highest population of all nations in the world on a landmass the size of the state of Montana, which is in the top 10 least populous states in the union.


UPS Has Been Delivering Cargo in Self-Driving Trucks for Months And No One Knew (8/16/2019) ~ Futurology

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They need a robot that can roll up to the front door and leave a "sorry we missed you" note even when people are home.


*For one small test route Of course no one knew. Do they think people just follow UPS trucks around checking to see who is in the cabin?


That's line haul (terminal to terminal), not delivery (terminal to consignee).


The end of one of the largest job markets in the US is in sight. As far as I'm aware, there is no plan for what to do for the crippling of the economy this will cause.


Is it a bad time to get into trucking for a 19 y/o?I’ve been wanting to get into it out of my own ambition but this AI stuff has me worried. People are very black and white about it, either people say it’s doom and gloom & 3.5 million jobs go out the window within the year and the job will cease to exist, or that truckers could never be replaced within our lifetime because of a b and c. Don’t know what to believe.


TIL Potato chip bags are not full of air, but of nitrogen gas. This is done to prevent the chips from oxidizing, which is part of what makes them go stale. (8/12/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Don't they also fill the bags to prevent the chips from being crushed during transport?


I used to guide up Mt. Shasta. Around 13,000 ft for the people who packed chips or other similarly bagged snacks, I'd hear these 'POP' sounds going off in their packs from the packaging exploding. My clients would be like, "What was that?" I would tell them, "Your snacks have been opened by the hungry god of altitude."


Working in the food industry. Another reason for the so-it-seems disproportionate ratio of chips and air is the packing process. Imagine a tube of never ending packaging material being shrink wrapped at the bottom. A defined amount of chips (+ an additional amount to not go underweight) are filled into the now forming new bag. Bag is sealed at the top after that. It has to be guaranteed that there are no stockpiled chips blocking the foil at the area where the sealing device is sealing the foil, so a clean airtight bag is ensured. The lower the amount of chips, the easier and faster a production process is assured.


I thought this was just general knowledge. if they were filled with "air" why would they randomly go bad once opened and exposed to "air"


To nitpick, the oxygen makes them go "rancid," while humidity makes them go "stale".


TIL animal life in Chernobyl is thriving, not because the radiation is gone, there’s still a lot of it, but because there’s barely any humans living in that area. (8/14/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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I, too, would rather deal with radiation than most people.


The thing about Chernobyl is that it wasn't completely radiated. Some places are normal, but the thing is there are sporadic hot spots where nuclear material gathered that would be too easy to stumble upon. It's not like every square centimeter of land is irradiated. But those places that have a lot of accumulated nuclear waste are very radioactive. It's closer to a nuclear minefield.


It’s almost as if humans were BAD for wildlife...


Honestly, the levels of radiation in the area aren't *particularly* threatening to humans, regardless of TFA's hyperbolic statements. Yes, there's some small increased chance of cancer, but most people will be fine. I mean, if you have a choice between Chernobyl and an equally shitty place without elevated radiation, take the other option. But you're not going to turn into Dr. Manhattan either way.


so humans are worse than radiation eh?


TIL Of Jeanne De Clisson, a 14th century Pirate Queen who took to the seas out to get revenge on the French king for executing her husband. She sold her estates and raised an army, raiding French ships with no mercy. She had 3 ships; they were painted black and their sails were red. (8/11/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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She left only a few survivors per ship, ostensibly so they could flee to the French king and tell him of her ruthlessness.


Jeanne De Clisson was real, but we have no idea how much of this actually happened and how much is Victorian era tall tales. If anyone actually bothers to click the link they will notice that none of what OP has included in the title is sourced. Sourcing ends at the execution of her husband and picks up again with her marriage to Sir Walter Bentley. If you bother to do a google scholar search of Jeanne De Clisson or Jeanne De Belleville you get a bunch of mid 1800s sources and pop history books.


I see a pirate ship and I want it painted black (?)


And as a final, supreme act of revenge against the French she married an Englishman. Merde.


LPT: If your pirate captain has a reputation for leaving only 1 survivor to tie their tale, flee. Stay portside the next opportunity and let them sail on. Piracy works on fear and intimidation. If the crew of the other ship knows they’re doomed if they surrender, they likely won’t surrender until they’ve killed or tried to kill a great deal many of you. On the other hand, a pirate ship known for releasing prisoners, returning swords to officers, and accepting new members from captured ships, will find their plundering days much easier.


How tree-planting drones can plant 100,000 trees in a single day [January 2018] (8/15/2019) ~ Futurology

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Imagine you are out hiking minding your own business and suddenly you get shot in the head by a biodegradable seedpod


What's stopping this happening? Ideas seem to always have roadblocks


Drop those Silver Maple helicopter seeds and they will grow almost anywhere. My neighborhood dumps inches of them everywhere every spring. They will sprout in thick lawns, hard packed clay, slightly dirty gutters, and even cracks in the paved road.


When the world is divided into hexagons and we have the proper tech it's possible. It's going to take alot of builders though since they can only do three tiles each.


Why aren’t we just fucking dropping seeds all over this bitch. I can’t imagine seeds are hard to get your hands on. And who cares if some are making it into the soil or whatever. Just drop the fuckers, if they plant they plant if they don’t they don’t. But it sounds better to at least just try.


Solar Power Is Playing A Growing Role To Save The Bees – Solar companies are turning solar farms into “solar apiaries”, pollinator-safe havens, with pollinator-friendly plant seeding and bee-boxes to promote bee colony health. (8/13/2019) ~ Futurology

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This seems like a no-brainer, but logistically speaking, how difficult is it to maintain bee colonies around such important technology? Is it really just as simple as the picture suggests? Putting a couple of boxes underneath the solar panels? lol


As an apprentice Electrician who one day wants to get into solar, are you telling me I can be an electrician/beekeeper? Bee-cause that's a job listing I never knew I wanted so badly.


*Maintenance guy shows up to Solar farm to do maintenance stuff* Bees?? NO NOT THE BEES!


The Trump admin cut funding to research bee populations because it could be linked to pesticides and climate warming and now is cutting subsidies for solar and removing any scientists that reports on the damaging effects of climate change. Thankfully many farmers, businesses and homeowners understand the risks of losing bees and are stepping up to increase hives and installing solar on their own initiative.


so everyone that performs maintenance and so forth has to go in bee suits?


TIL after TJ Miller got accused of sexual misconduct and called in a fake bomb threat, Dreamworks hired an impersonator to dub over his lines in How To Train Your Dragon 3 to match his performance exactly (it had already been animated) in order to not change the film but still dissociate him from it (8/11/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Tj miller on how to ruin a prominent career in hollywood.


TIL TJ Miller called in a fucking bomb threat.


Is this the bartender guy in Deadpool?


Am i trippin or didn't they also replace him in that big foot movie with channing tatum? Could've sworn i saw the first trailer for that and it had tj and was confused when another came out with channing instead. Maybe I'm just confused.


How to ruin your career in 3 moves. &#x200B; Quit a very popular show... then trash everyone on it... call in a fake bomb threat... &#x200B; Also, have a comedy special bomb on HBO. Which kind of shows why he needs so many takes. That he is funny but he needs to do it so many times until they find the best one.


This plane can fly 500 miles, powered entirely by hydrogen. It’s the largest zero-emissions plane to ever fly without any fossil fuels. (8/14/2019) ~ Futurology

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Great development. I read a lot of hate on hydrogen, and I understand: 95% is made by steam methane reforming. However, these developments are necessary and stimulate development into water-splitting and finding new hydrogen production methods. With planes like these, we are creating a market here to stimulate more green hydrogen. Batteries will not in a thousand years be able to power a boat or plane with their current densities. Hydrogen is one of our very few sources with enough energy density to tackle one of the world’s biggest polluters.


> Planes equipped with the new technology can begin to connect smaller regional airports that aren’t often used now, which could have advantages for travelers. “Your wait times are shorter,” he says. “Your security lines are shorter or nonexistent in the smaller airports, and that contributes to the better experience as well. A hydrogen powered airplane isn't going to increase travelers to a municipal airfield any more than a jet A fueled airplane.


hydrogen is a long way from zero emmission, the primary source is hydrocarbons and most of the fuels transportation is petroleum based


I hate when hydrogen is called "zero-emission". A power line doesn't have any emissions either. It's about where the energy comes from. I could make lots of hydrogen using electricity generated by burning fossil fuels and that surely wouldn't be "zero-emission".


That's 800 kilometres, for those who don't use a measurement system based on barleycorn.


ELI5: How do actors/actress do sex scenes in tv/film? (8/15/2019) ~ Explain Like I'm Five

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Question has been answered and the comments are mostly anecdotes about that one scene in that one movie and this thing I heard. Sorry guys, topic is getting locked.


I've posted this before: I work in film, so I can shed some light on this actually happens. When a script calls for nudity or simulated sex, there is an additional contractual discussion about what can and cannot be shown, the way in which the scene will be filmed, and many other aspects (they basically go through everything line by line, shot by shot, which is why you want a good agent and lawyer). Unlike the stories you may hear about the seventies, or some indie films, Hollywood is very strict about these scenes, and there are no surprises. A lot of the guidelines are regulated by the guilds, such as having bathrobes standing by, etc. Keep in mind that you are not going to be filming anything real, because you couldn't show it anyway if you wanted to get an R rating or below. Everything you can get away with at the R level or below can be faked. NC-17 (formerly X rating) is the kiss of death, because most theaters refuse to screen NC-17 films. That is why some films will choose to be unrated, or get into a fight with the MPAA like Blue Valentine or more recently Charlie Countryman. If the scene is showing a lot, like Game of Thrones, the actors are probably naked, and the man will wear a small skin colored sock. The set is designated a closed set while filming, which restricts the set to only essential personnel. That would include the actors, director, cinematographer, assistant director, assistant cameras (possibly only the 1st AC), hair/make-up, and wardrobe. A few other people may be on set, and then others may be watching from the monitor depending on the scene, like the production designer. The Assistant Director (AD) team would lock the set up, despite the grips trying to get a peek. In between every take, the wardrobe team rushes onto the set with bathrobes for the actors. Then for the actual act they are touching naked on screen, and it is very awkward but most actors will tell you it is not romantic in the slightest. I seriously doubt many people would enjoy being naked in front of a dozen people, starting and stopping every few minutes for a few hours while people run out periodically to adjust a light. Every situation is different and I am sure some actors are comfortable crossing the lines of professionalism, but this is how the vast majority of major films handle these scenes. A few funny anecdotes: I cannot remember which actor it was, but a male actor was quoted telling the actress before a sex scene the following, "I'm sorry if I do, and I'm sorry if I don't." My mentor also told me about the day she was walking across a backlot and a grip came running out of a sound stage in his boxer shorts. Apparently, the actress said, if I have to take my pants off then everyone watching does too. So the entire crew removed their pants to make her more comfortable while filming.


Intimacy coordinators are becoming much more popular on sets! HBO has them for any of their shows that have sex scenes. The coordinators job is a mix between a counselor and a stunt coordinator - they chat with the actors and directors and set firm boundaries of what each person is comfortable filming. Then they plan out the scene very much like you would plan a fight scene - where the hands are going, what movements will happen etc. Once filming, the coordinator stays to make sure that no boundaries get crossed, that the actors are happy and thus reducing the chance of an accusation of sexual assault. Basically they look after everyone working on a sex scene and keep them happy and safe! Most of them come from dance and stunt coordinating backgrounds.


They let prospective actors know about the nude scene up front, so the actor can refuse the part if they're not comfortable. They clear the room of everyone who doesn't absolutely need to be there. It may be only the director and the camera operator, once they've got the lights and so on set up. Careful placement of bedclothes (sheets). Instead of showing you long single takes, they edit to show lots of short cuts that look suggestive but aren't. Sort of like they do for fight scenes. They focus on things other than crotches and butts... hands, arms, necks, legs, feet. Again, making it look suggestive without being X-rated. They can add sound later, if needed. They can use flesh-shaded thongs and CGI to make you think you're seeing something that you're not. If it's a foreign film (not a U.S. film) the actors and the audience may accept fully-nude scenes. In the U.S. we can kill dozens of people with guns or let zombies rip them apart and splatter blood and guts everywhere, but crotch shots give people the vapors.


Genital guards -- cloth or plastic, sometimes even menstrual pads -- are attached to the woman with latex glue so she can be seen from different angles without showing off more than she wants to. Men wear modesty bags -- a sack with a drawstring, basically. And there is rarely any chance of accidental sex because when someone's acting under the lights in front of 20 people for seven hours, arousal is rarely an option.


TIL it took the Mythbusters team two years to find a company that would make lead foil thin enough for a lead balloon. (8/16/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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It’s not like they were actively trying each day for 2 years


wow i cant wait to play bloons in real life, thanks mr. mythbusters


Highly recommend Adam Savage's book "Every Tool's a Hammer"


What do general people do with Lead Foil so much that there is a market for it ?


99 lead balloons...


TIL a man bought a golden egg for $13,000 at a sale. It turned out it was an incredibly rare Fabergé egg, once owned by the Emperor of Russia, that had been missing since 1902. It is worth $33,300,000. (8/16/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Buddy, I gotta think of shelf space and resale value. Best I can do is $200.


If he had $13,000 to spend on an ornament, I’d assume that he’s not short of money to start with.


As an amateur Faberge Egg expert, I'll clear up some of the missing egg info. The egg was made in 1887 and was the third of the infamous Faberge Eggs. After the Romanov family was murdered, all of their treasures were stored away safely. Lenin wanted to preserve Russian pieces of art. After Lenin died, Stalin needed western currency to fund his Treasures for Tractors program. He sold all but ten of the eggs to the west for needed capital back in the late 1920's/early 1930's. Some of the eggs have changed hands numerous times over the years. This particular egg was last sold at auction back in the early 60's. It was purchased in an antique store in the midwest in 2004. The buyer wanted to sit on it for a few years and sell it for scrap metal. One day, out of curiosity, he Googled "Vacheron Constantin egg" to see if he could find out more about it. Vacheron Constantin was the maker of the clock inside of the egg (all Faberge Eggs came with a surprise). Luckily, the English newspaper The Telegraph wrote an article of about the egg back in 2006 with a picture from the auction in the early 60's. He could hardly believe he had a missing treasure in his kitchen for ten years and didn't know it. To this day, the buyer and seller are anonymous.


The guy likely had to forfeit it over as stolen goods. He was probably well rewarded, but not likely paid the entire $33,300,000 for it.


Must've tasted really good.


TIL: In Back to the Future, the theatre in the background behind the clock tower shows “Orgy American Style” being shown. This is an actual porno from 1973. The male star from that porno played Red the Bum in the film, calling Marty a crazy drunk driver when returns to the present. (8/14/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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You should post it on r/moviedetails


Just when I was certain I knew everything about Back to the Future


It should be noted that George Buck, the actor who played Red the Bum, was a well known character actor who was in a lot of mainstream films. He was not a porn actor. He just happened to have a part in that Porn film. Porn films in the 70s and 80s had more plot and narrative to them and commonly casted people in non-xxx roles.


Possibly the best TIL I've ever read. Well done.


I always thought it was funny that Hill Valley had a porn theater. Pre-Biff.


TIL- The Guy Fawkes mask used by a number of activist groups (including anti-capitalist groups) is copyrighted and owned by Time Warner. Everytime a mask is purchased, Time Warner get paid. (8/13/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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It's unlikely that these aren't being mass produced in China by a company who is ignoring the copyright.


"Capitalists will sell us the rope we use to hang them." -- V. I. Lenin* "We will sell communists the masks they use to protest against us." -- Time Warner *^probably ^he ^didn't ^actually ^say ^this


Well yeah, sure, if you buy the officially licensed version.


Isn't that the famous hacker Four Chan?


Gotta admit it's pretty funny


TIL in World War II, a few engineers wanted to reinforce the (returned) fighter planes where most of the bullet holes were. Mr. Abraham Wald then said: Let’s reinforce them where no bullet holes are instead – because apparently, airplanes hit in these spots did NOT return. (8/13/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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There's lots of counterintuitive things like that. In World War 1, a bunch of British troops were getting head injuries from falling debris, so they issued everyone helmets. However, after the rollout, reported head injuries actually went *up*. What was happening is that before having helmets, a bunch of soldiers were dying, but were just listed as 'dead' rather than 'dead because of head injury'. After the helmets, the soldiers survived, but then had head injuries. As such, injuries went up, but deaths went down.


Incident: Sailors tell stories about how dolphins helped push them towards shore, saving their lives. False conclusion: Dolphins like to help humans Survivorship bias: Only the people pushed towards shore were able to tell their stories of being saved by dolphins. Probable reality: Dolphins like to play with humans in the water, pushing them around. Some get pushed to shore, some get pushed further out to sea to drown.


This is called the survivor bias and can also explain in part why is there more cancer today than 200 years ago, people is living longer so cancer appears more often.


In addition to advancing statistics, the scale of WWII created a need for more sophisticated management of tactics, strategy and logistics, which in turn created the field of operations research.


When helmets were first introduced in WW1, there was a massive increase in head wounds and the British authorities thought the helmets were defective. Then they realized that without helmets the head wounds would almost always be fatal and they didn't live long enough to be counted as wounded.


TIL the Japanese usually leave out most of their history from the early 1900s to WW2 from their high school curriculum. (8/15/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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1905: Japan defeats Russian Navy at Battle of Tsushima 1995: Japan invents Pokémon The rest of the century was pretty quiet, no real need to teach any of that


One day, a whole bunch of planes went on a trip to Hawaii and then yada yada yada sex robots.


"Nanking? No idea WTF you're talking about."


I live on Guam and interestingly enough, a lot of tourists (mostly Japanese) go to WWII memorial sites or parks here, and it's basically telling them what atrocities Japan committed against the island during the occupation. "Wow this resort has a track and soccer/football field, giant pool and and beautiful water features" "Yup, also, over that ridge is where the Japanese marched thousands of men, women, and children to their deaths with a planned machinegun massacre during WWII"


I’m English and I never learnt about the countries we took over or the genocide stuff either for that matter... I know we won two world wars and one World Cup though.


TIL Perpetual Stews were common in the middle ages. The pot was never or rarely emptied, and whatever food was found was placed inside and cooked (8/16/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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I’ve done this on hunting trips. Get a stew going the first day and just keep it going all week and add to it as it gets eaten/reduces.


It's a common practice here in Thailand some stalls here keep boiling the same stew for decades, some have huge ass accretions of stew outside of the cauldron due to spillovers, and they left it as just that


Grew up in rural UK, in a farming community, and this was still a practise in my childhood, 50 years ago. Started to decline by the time I was in my teens, largely because the old wood-burning or oil fired stoves (which basically ran all the time) were all falling into disuse and being replaced with gas/electric ones. But yeah, basically - anything left over went into a permanently softly bubbling pot and the content got used as soups, stock, or stew when needed - and was invariably damn delicious too.


Huh, so the neverending cooking pots strewn throughout Kingdom Come: Deliverance are historically accurate.


In Flea Bottom, we call that a bowl o'brown.


The world’s first solar road has turned out to be a colossal failure that’s falling apart and doesn’t generate enough energy, according to a report (8/15/2019) ~ Futurology

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Wouldn't using water pipes (geothermal) underneath the road have been a better idea since the asphalt would absorb IR and transfer it underneath?


Lots of people said that in theory it doesn't work, now we know that in practice it doesn't either.


No shit. Who could have imagined that putting something fragile that requires direct sunlight beneath a bunch of dirty, heavy cars is a bad idea?




Thunderf00t (or anyone with a brain) could have told them that like forever ago.


Germany’s Big Bet On Hydrogen. Germany is going through a remarkable transformation from a fossil fuel-based economy towards a sustainable energy infrastructure dominated by wind and solar power. (8/12/2019) ~ Futurology

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we'll see....brown coal is still an incredibly high percentage of their production.....


I remember reading not long ago that despite Germany being so far ahead in renewables their domestic energy prices are some of the highest in Europe.


German here. Our "remarkable transformation" is not even enough to stop climate change if everybody did it. Our state literally subsidizes fossile fuels.


Trying to remember if any vehicles with German names ever had a problem with hydrogen…


So we're not going to talk about their switch from Nuclear to Coal?


TIL Florida passed a bill in1967 which would allow Disney to build their own nuclear power plant at Disney World, that law still stands (8/15/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Better yet--Florida has a "nuclear cost recovery" policy, which allows companies that want to build a nuke to begin charging their customers for the construction costs before they begin construction--and if the plant is never finished for whatever reason, they don't have to give any of the money back.


Oh no, I’d hate for Disney to have clean and extremely efficient energy production


I'm going to guess there are a few federal hoops to jump through before this would ever happen.


Nuclear is the best renewable and cleanest energy source


And suddenly, I have a brand new gem of an idea for an Alternate History timeline where Disneyworld is now the center of a post-apocalypse dystopian future.


TIL that “celebrity psychiatrist” Dr. Isaac Herschkopf manipulated a patient into cutting off his family, giving him his home, signing over his bank account, and amending his will to leave everything to the doctor’s wife. Yet Dr. Herschkopf still maintains his medical license in New York City today. (8/14/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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There's a recent podcast about this guy! It's called "The Shrink Next Door", really popular and well reviewed. It was #1 on the Apple podcast charts a few months back. Definitely recommend if you're into true crime podcasts, although I will say it's a bit of a slow burn. Dr. Herschkopf is such a sick and manipulative man, certainly one of the most unethical doctors I've ever heard of. It completely boggles my mind that he still has his license to practice medicine! Btw, it wasn't just that one patient--other patients have come forward with similar allegations. He manipulated a female patient into amending her will to leave everything to HIS kids! So sick. I'm a big believer in therapy so it sucks that this guy has made people question whether they can trust their mental health professionals. Also, I just can't comprehend how his actions are not illegal, much less unethical.


Someone just left a comment saying it's not a big deal because it was the patient's fault for making dumb decisions and regretting them afterwards but they deleted it before I could post this reply: &#x200B; I totally get where you're coming from. Like someone else said, I definitely wanted to shake the patient at times when I was listening to his story. He is not an unintelligent man by conventional standards; he graduated from Wharton and was educated in business. He was, at least at some point, a millionaire. I see why it's hard to view him as a victim, honestly. However, he was also emotionally vulnerable, socially isolated, and mentally struggling. No partner, no friends, few family. I think the reason people are horrified is that this guy's own DOCTOR took advantage of his vulnerable state. Yes, what Marty did was naive at best and extremely stupid at worst. No, it couldn't have happened to "just anyone" because many people would indeed say "fuck off" when their therapist (or anyone really) starts suggesting they hand over their assets. However, we're talking about a highly educated and experienced PSYCHIATRIST trained in the science of mapping human emotions who identified this wealthy, vulnerable, isolated man, and sucked him dry almost to the point of bankruptcy over 27 YEARS while charging him $3 MILLION in "fees" for the therapy. Even if you think it's SOMEHOW not due to the doctor's influence that his patient decided to give him access to his bank account, to use his house as if it were his own, and to revise his will to leave everything to his psychiatrist's family, it's absolutely immoral that the doctor at the VERY least did not REFUSE his patient's obscenely generous "gifts". Few mentally and emotionally stable people would "gift" their therapist their entire life. Ike Herschkopf was this guy's doctor, not some random acquaintance or unscrupulous relative. And he has faced little to no concrete consequences--professionally, legally, and financially--for his abhorrent pattern of behavior over several decades. His patient's agency does not excuse his own agency. So I understand your perspective but I think you may be missing the larger point about the ambiguity of ethics in the field of psychiatry, the confusion of boundaries in the doctor/patient relationship, the lack of repercussions for doctors who mistreat their patients, the lack of transparency in the legal followup for professional misdeeds, the lack of translation from ethical guidelines to legal consequences, etc. All of that stuff makes this more than a story about some dumb dude and some predatory dude who took advantage of him.


This is very similar to what happen to Beach Boy Brian Wilson for decades. Except his quack of a doc also kept him super drugged up on anti psychotics during that time.


“Celebrity Psychiatrist” Isaac Herschkopf manipulated a patient into cutting off.....” Oh dear. “...his family” Pheeew!


I referred a friend and I go to the same therapist. We talk about it openly and see each other in the waiting room sometimes and say hi in front of her. She won’t acknowledge his existence to me or mine to him. That’s how seriously she takes her ethical responsibilities. She’s actually pretty normal for the industry in my experience. This guy has a slightly different approach when it comes to ethics.


ELI5: If a prediction of a recession causes the market to crash, can it be said that the prediction itself is part of the cause of the recession? Like a self-fulfilling prophecy? (8/14/2019) ~ Explain Like I'm Five

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The prediction is a sort of self fulfilling prophecy. However a prediction of a recession will not do much unless all the analysts in the market also make the same prediction. In addition people will be looking for some sort of trigger in addition to having predicted the recession. So if there is some sort of trigger and nobody predicts a recession then there will not be one yet. However if at some later point you get the same trigger but the majority of the market does predict that the recession is close it will trigger it and cause a recession.


There is a theory that when it comes to large scale human behavior as soon as you start to measure something, the measurement loses some of its value. You want to measure how well your business is doing? Measure quarterly profit and instantly the company will start to do weird shit to boost quarterly figures in the short term. However just because measurements corrupt things doesn't mean that they are useless. Everyone has been eyeing the market thinking that it is behaving oddly. Valuations on assets are sky high, unemployment is low, yet inflation is low and wages are not rising. People have been watching these bond yield numbers for a year now seeing them flashing danger signs and this is just the straw that broke the camel's back in terms of convincing people there is a real challenge here. The fundamentals of the market are fucked up right now.


The man who sold very good hot dogs There was once a man who lived by the side of the road and sold hot dogs. He was hard of hearing so he had no radio - he had trouble with his eyes, so he read no newspapers and of course he didn't look at television. But he sold very good hot dogs. He put up signs on the highway telling everyone how good they were, he stood on the side of the road and cried out to all that past 'buy a hot dog, they are the best in town'. And people bought his hot dogs and he increased his meat and bun orders. He bought a bigger stove to take care of all the extra business. He finally got his son to come and help him out with his business. But then something happened, his son who had been well educated said . . . ' Father, haven't you been listening to the radio or reading the newspapers or watching television? There's a big recession happening right now. The current business situation is terrible in this country - we have problems with unemployment, high living costs, strikes, pollution, the influence of minorities and majorities, the rich, the poor, drugs, alcohol, capitalism and communism '. Where upon his father thought, ' well my son's been well educated, he reads the papers, listens to the radio and watches television, so he ought to know '. So his father cut down on his meat and bun orders, took down all his advertising signs and no longer bothered to stand by the side of the road to promote and sell his hot dogs, . . . . and his hot dog sales fell almost overnight.


If it were that shallow, yes. But there is a ton of real data, visible to all investors, that goes into that prediction. So in reality it is the actual data about economic performance that leads to the recession.


The way you phrased the question, "if prediction *causes* a market recession, is the prediction part of the cause?" Yes. Yes it is. By definition. Instead, "do predictions cause market crashes?" No, probably not. People make predictions every day. It probably balances-out on average.


Roll Red Roll (2018) – An underage girl is raped at a party in Steubenville, Ohio by two football players. The town tries to protect the boys and the team, but the evidence exposes a culture ingrained with a “boys will be boys” mentality. [1h20m] (8/12/2019) ~ Documentaries

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Man when I was a kid boys will be boys meant schoolyard fights, daring each other to eat dirt and doing generally stupid things without realizing the danger upon your own life. Boys will be boys never meant raping someone or anything that harmed anyone else.


I remember this story coming out. The cover ups were happening years before this finally came out. Anonymous was involved with airing it out as well. Theres a video of a confession to the acts as well. The boy literally said we raped her so hard. And the boys on the football team had a favorite song as well. Rape Me by Nirvana. You can not write shit this crazy.


Story Time: My schizophrenic brother went off his meds while living with a girl in Steubenville. She kicked him out and he became homeless. He would call me from random strangers phones and I would try and locate him so I could drive down from NYC to rescue him. My family and I begged the local police for help. We were always polite and they were always aggressive and unhelpful. After weeks of trying to pin my brother down I gave up and took a week off work to search the area. My first stop was the Steubenville PD. Big mistake. When I showed up and explain ed who I was and who I was looking for the put me in a room and made me wait over an hour. Then some sergeant or captain showed up and lectured me for 30 minutes for harassing the police department and waiting the time of the police. I was flabbergasted. I didn't even know how to respond. After his assurances the department would do zero to help find my missing brother I was allowed to leave. I then spent the rest of my week searching the rotting underbelly of Steubenville for my brother with no success. About a month later he popped up in Pittsburgh, PA. He had walked there on foot and I was able to track him down and pick him up before he froze to death. Steubenville, OH is the asshole of the earth. I hope that I never have to set foot in that God forsaken place again.


My gf was raped at Liberty University by a football player. She and a few others came forward to the school, but they didn't do jack shit since he was one of the better players. Fucking hate that place.


When i was in high school, the drug sniffing dog caught 2 football players. Absolutely nothing happened to them. No suspension, no booted off the football team. Apparently, the school didn't want to suin their lives. One of them got a full ride to a large school, and proceeded to get kicked out before even finishing his first freshmen semester for drinking too much, and not going to class or practice (which, if you ever met him, you would be shocked how he even passed high school, because he was honestly just stupid as fuck). The other one didn't play football after high school, and just partied took like 6 years at a junior college. Edit: for the people saying it's not a big deal, it actually is. This was in california in the time before even medical marijuana was legal, and they basically taught these guys that rules don't apply to them. When you teach that lesson to people, then you get people like the affluenza teen, stealing beer from a walmart, then driving drunk and killing 4 people, and paralyzing his friend. To say "oh, its just weed, they don't deserve to get in trouble". They were minors, and it was illegal. It doesn't matter if you think its a stupid law, it's still a law. The school had a "zero tolerance" policy, not enforcing a policy equally is the epitome of a class system, and its something that current politicians try to get away with.


TIL about Gilbert Seltzer – a WW2 veteran who lead a secret platoon of men within a unit dubbed the ‘Ghost Army’. Made up of artists, creatives & engineers, their job was creating deception about the enemy. From inflatable tanks to scripted bar conversations, this unit’s work led to big US wins. (8/12/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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My favorite story from this unit was the camel poop land mines. German tanks were getting destroyed by land mines in North Africa so the Germans started driving over camel poop whenever they saw it. The theory was, if there was camel poop there was no land mine there. So the allies made land mines that looked like camel poop. So the Germans tried to only drove over camel poop that already had tread marks. So the allies made land mines that looked like camel poop with tread marks. Improvise. Adapt. Overcome.


*"All warfare is based on deception"* -Sun Tzu


My boyfriends grandfather was in this unit! He was a painter who worked for National Geographic, Smithsonian etc. He has a lot of cool stories about his time in the Ghost Army!


Literally every army in WW2 did this before the US entered the war.


And their best known work? "Wenn ist das Nunstück git und Slotermeyer?"


ELI5: Why do Characters like these exist in Unicode: Ñ̷̡͔̔̌̒͂̍́̈́͠ỏ̷̺͒̍̎̑̌͋̊́͗̚͠͝i̵̡̨̼͍͉͙̱͇̻̳̤̮̓̒͌͆̈̅̀̆̕ç̵̧̢̨̻̲̭̼̦̆̽̎͐́̍͂ë̶̪̖̬͇̥̭̹̟̯̝͛̊̓̑͊͘͝ͅ. What purpose do they serve. (8/13/2019) ~ Explain Like I'm Five

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They're diacritics. Many languages have small bits and bobs that can be overlaid with other characters to modify them. On the simpler side, the double-dot (diaeresis) in "naïve" means that the I should be pronounced as separate from the preceding letter. Unicode, the purpose of which is to provide a way of representing all languages, handles those by having the marks as separate characters which are rendered on top of preceding ones. The Zalgo text in your example happens when someone decides to randomly pile every kind of diacritical mark available on top of the text which makes it seem like illegible gibberish. It doesn't mean anything when used like that.


They're combining marks. Unicode is designed to handle all human language plus a lot extra - which is a *lot* of potential symbols, so they built it to be modular. So a lot of characters are designed to combine. Like, you know how there are six skin tones available for emojis depicting people? Unicode doesn't actually have an character for black waving hand 👋🏿", you use "Waving hand 👋" followed by "Black skin tone 🏿". Some languages need the ability combine characters together - like in Thai, vowels get stuck on top of consonants - and add pronunciation marks, and then what if you're writing lyrics and you need to add musical notation, etc. So they let you stack combining characters on each other however you want. What Zalgo text is doing is using a bunch of characters that attach to the top of the letter so they stack up, then going back down with characters that attach below the letter, then back up again so they overlap several times.


That specific example is Zalgo text. Zalgo is an internet creepypasta based on an incorporeal, malevolent entity that drives people insane.


They're for calling Cthulhu from the void & also for demons on the internet to communicate their demoney-ness.


A͚s͙͖h̹̰̙̖ ̘͎͖̯͖͓ͅn̖̪̟a͍̜͉̕z̡͓g̣͎̩̘ ̨̩͎͚͕̼͕ḍ̶͍͉u̧̳̪̮̤͕̦ŕ̮̼̖̦̙͓̝b̳̮̞̩̫̦͘ͅa̸̬t͖u̩͕̙̦͎̻̱ḽ̜̭͇̪û̹̠̪́k̺̺͚̲͎͎͚, ̩͍̩̤̼͔̥͡a̵̲̼̞͉s̸̩̣̥̻ẖ ̀n̬ͅḁ̬̻͠z̻͠g̪ ̴̜g͏ì͎͙͈̯͎̭̝m̀b̶̺͍̦a̫͈̼̜͓͠tụ̺l̵̤̠̳̜,̹ ̵̥̯̦̭̖̝a͕̼̫̘͍͖s͎͇̘̠̩̦͖͠h́ ͖̳n҉a̬̲̠͉̘̕zg̟̲͖̱ ̵̫̬͉̫t̸͔̲̭͙h̬̗̙͢r̳͈͓̩ạ͔̱̞͉͘k̝̮̮̤͡a̦̞͓ţ͈̗͖͚͓̝̰u̩͖ḷ̞̼û̴k̺̺͖͙͍̘͇ ̻̹̫̣͕̮̘͘ag̙̼̲̥͙͟ͅh͙̦̬̫̱͝ ͕͞b͈u̢̯̞̞͔r̗z̛̜͖͇̲̱̠̦u̻̭͍̜̹̣ṃ̪̯̹͙̥͔-̗̹̤͖͉͞i͓̼̺͍s̲̱̩h̰̦̘i͕͔̬͈ ̧̺̥͇̠̪k͇̼̣̭̻̭r̠͎̲̻͠i̼͜m̨̮̼̤̭̼̫ͅp̤̙a͈̤̖͘t͉͍̟̝u̖̟l͘.


ELI5: The difference between a router, switch, hub, a bridge and a modem (8/16/2019) ~ Explain Like I'm Five

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Edit: Network traffic broken into packets, which you can think of like a letter in an envelope. The letter is your data (like a Google query) and the envelope has a 'to' and 'from' line to help know how to forward it on. All those devices have different techniques for knowing how and where to forward an envelope onto, once they get it. **Hub:** Make a copy of a letter and give it to every one of your neighbors with a t-shirt cannon, whether you meant to give it to them or not **Switch:** Make a copy of your letter and use a map to drive it to a specific neighbor **Bridge:** When you want to give a letter to Billy the next neighborhood over, so you give it to his brother who lives right in-between the two neighborhoods **Router:** Send your letter to the post office, and they'll send it to your grandma by forwarding it to her post office and then driving it to her house using a map **Gateway:** The post office in your neighborhood **Modem:** Send your letter to the post office by saying it over the phone to a postal worker, where they type and print it off and forward it on


**Router:** Directs network traffic based on destination addresses and preset rules. These are usually situated between gateways/modems and switches. **Switch:** These devices simply connect multiple devices together, sort of like a splitter. Although managed switches can do quite a bit more, such as create VLAN's, which can help organize and protect network traffic. **Gateway:** These are often times mistakenly referred to as modems or routers. They are devices that connect a private network to the internet. However they can also just be a device that connects one private network to a larger private network. A residential gateway is likely the device you have at home that connects you to the internet. **Hub:** These are essentially the dumb versions of switches. They function like repeaters, so when a computer talks on the network, the hub will broadcast that message to every port on the hub. If the message reaches the target PC, then that PC will do the same. This is a very inefficient method, which is why hubs are obsolete. Switches contain memory, so they remember which PC is on which port, and will direct messages to the correct port without having to constantly broadcast to all ports. **Bridge:** A network bridge joins two networks together. Such as one PC sharing the network connection with other PC's. Things like transparent bridges create a seamless link, these are often times used by security devices such as firewalls. They will inspect network traffic and block anything that violates the rules. **Modem:** A device that converts network traffic into a format that can be used on the media that connects you to the internet; Whether that be fiber, coaxial cable, 3G/4G wireless signals, or a copper phone line. &#x200B; Edit: What you have at home, which is often times referred to as a 'Wireless router', or just a 'router', is actually a combination of a lot of these devices. They are indeed routers, but also switches, wireless access points, and sometimes modems/gateways. If it contains a modem, it can be referred to as a residential gateway, if it doesn't, then it's a wireless router. Small businesses will often use these same devices, but larger businesses will use enterprise class hardware, where these devices are separate and usually mounted in an equipment rack.


Hub: Everybody yells in your house whenever they want something, it sucks, plus now everyone knows everyone else's business. Nobody yells anymore, hubs are bad. Switch: If you want to yell at someone in your house, you go to them and yell at them, nobody else hears it. To yell back at you, they come to you. This is awesome but still local and indoors. Router: You want to yell at your neighbor but don't care where he is, these take the noise and pass it around all the way to his ears. Bridge: It's like that door that connects two rooms in a hotel so the family can yell at each other. Modem: It converts the yelling into electricity so your yelling can travel far and reach your neighbor (you don't know/care where he is, see router above)


Your ELI5 answer: Modem = where internet comes from Router = routes internet to devices from modem, usually creates wi-fi Switch/hub = same as router just more dumb/less features Bridge = Used to cross a body of water, or to connect two connections into one. &#x200B; edit: a lot of people don't understand what ELI5 means


Router = A call center phone system where everyone can only be reached through an extension from the main line. Hub= a friggin mega phone. Literally.. Imagine every phone call received by a call center just get blasted out on the entire floor. Switches=Everyone gets his own direct phone line in a call center. Bridge=Two completely different physical call center locations using the same main phone line. Modem=Modem is more like a translator. It's a magical translation machine that can turn all the calls from Japanese speakers into English. That's the best ELI5 I can think of.


TIL that Remote Workers are more productive than their in-office counterparts, according to 59% of employers. (8/12/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Yeah that's because you don't have to pretend to be interested while Joan from accounts receivable tells you about her asshole kids for thirty minutes of your life you're never getting back. Edit: a word


It’s because when you work from home you do not have to wear pants. Pants hinder productivity. It is known.


I'm a fully remote programmer. When I worked in an office I would get interrupted many times a day with people stopping at my desk, general office antics, plus I of course would also waste time stopping by other's desks to shoot the shit. This is great for personal relationships with your co-workers, not so much for productivity. These days I get interrupted via IM chat messages, but I can just ignore those or turn off the notifications if needed. I can concentrate for hours at a time. I'd venture to say that if I have a fully uninterrupted day at home, I can crank out 2-3 days worth of in-office work in just 6 hours.


any time i work from home i end up working harder. starting earlier and working later, not to mention working through lunch, not stopping or taking as long getting coffee or things like that. On the other hand i know people who are doing their laundry / getting their hair done / etc while working from home


Is this partially due to that working from home is generally given to more productive and motivated employees in the first place? I’m not saying it doesn’t also motivate, I’m just asking if this would be a factor.


Sperm can be segregated easily into male and female, scientists have shown for the first time, in a breakthrough which experts said could have ‘disruptive social consequences’ if applied to humans. (8/13/2019) ~ Futurology

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Man, I don't know how I feel about this. On one side you have the whole eugenics debate and the deep, dangerous whole that can drop into, but here I'm sitting thinking 'I'd like two children, a boy and a girl.' - Replace me and (hypothetical) missus, and have the experience of raising both genders. I have 44 cousins, and only 5 of them are girls, of which 3 are disabled (Minnesota accent), so it's almost become a sport now as my generation starts having kids, desperately hoping for functional women in our gene pool. On the downside, with so many boys, my Grandfather's attempt to destroy the family first name has been a spectacular failure.


This is an existing multi-billion dollar a year business in cattle. Supposed to be Futurology, not new-to-me.


Will they sell condoms that filter sperm into male and female , like a pink for girls and blue for boys?


This seems useful, combine it with artificial wombs and Neuralink and it should be possible to produce humans off of a factory production line and implant them with control chips wired through the pleasure, pain and fear centres of the brain and you have a completely controllable populace that is incapable of rebellion because they can be programmed from "birth" to associate questioning the government with fear and pain and associate obedience with pleasure and contentment.


I can't access the entire Telegraph article. I'd like to read the entire thing. Can someone post the article in full here?


TIL that Persians figured out ways to collect and store ice and make it usable all year round over 2000 years ago in the desert! (8/12/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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I'd like to point out that the "deserts" weren't sea level Sahara-type deserts, but mountainous high-elevation deserts. Many of them were located in Iranian cities that had elevations as much as, if not higher, than places like Denver in the U.S. or Khatmandu in Nepal.


I think Egyptians had evaporative cooling technology too. Because my air conditioner broke last year and some of the advice online was to make a cooler like the ancient Egyptian had.


What I find even more amazing is that they had air conditioning. In Yazd they brought the water streams in subterranean tunnels into the city and houses had a cellar through which the water flowed. Outside air was routed through this cellar tunnel to cool it, after which it was released into the house. The hot air was sucked out by specially designed chimneys which provided sufficient draft. I've seen countless examples of this amazing design in many beautiful buildings, all around Iran. It would be a terrible loss if they were destroyed in some kind of a war...


*yakhchāl is built of a unique water resistant mortar called sarooj, composed of sand, clay, egg whites, lime, goat hair, and ash in specific proportions, that is resistant to heat transfer and is thought to be completely water impenetrable.[citation needed]* How many egg whites were needed!?


That's pretty cool.


ELI5: Why does a single proton change everything about an element and it’s properties? (8/11/2019) ~ Explain Like I'm Five

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It's more to do with the extra electron that comes with it. Electrons are where the majority of the chemistry happens as they're responsible for the various kinds of atomic bonds that can be formed.


Like a domino piece or a jigsaw piece, a small change in one part means it fits differently with other parts. When you chain many pieces together, this difference becomes more evident than when you look at a single piece by itself.


Protons are positively charged, and hence attract electrons. Add more protons and you add more possible arrangements of how different numbers of electrons can arrange themselves. There's more to it than that, but this about covers the ELI5.


The short version for anyone who doesn't want to read a big long scary wall of text involves these 3 things: 1. A single proton changes the charge of an atom, the charge and subsequent arrangement of these atoms and their electrons is what controls what they are and how they work aka what element they are 2. There are "billion-billions" of atoms in most things, so if one proton is removed from an atom, something comprised of that many copies of the same atom are going to be drastically different. 3. This is because, since everything is made of atoms, everything is essentially several quintillion trillion little magnets and their shape controls everything about what the "big picture" item is and does.


Properties are basically driven by number and location of electrons, and one more proton is one more electron for an electrically neutral atom. Essentially one more electron changes the electronegativity, the electron band structure, the magnetic spin, the geometry of the electrical charge distribution, etc. How the rest of the universe deals with the atom can change dramatically depending on the electrons of the atom.


TIL we call people with red hair “red heads” as opposed to “orange heads” because the phrase has been around longer than the colour orange. The colour orange was described as red up until the 1500’s when the first reference of orange in the English language can be found. (8/12/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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What I read was: The color is named after the fruit. Before they came in contact with the fruit, people called orange: red-yellow.


The development of color vocabulary is fascinating. Across all time periods and places, cultures tend to develop their color words in the same order: first black/white or light/dark, then red, then green/orange, and finally blue/pink/purple. My favorite example of this is that there's no word for "blue" in ancient Greek. Hence the iconic phrase from The Odyssey, "Epi oinopa ponton"--"Upon the wine-dark sea."


I am a redheaded lady and I would hate being called 'orange head'.


The fact that it rhymes probably helped it stick too. We don't call blondes yellow heads, so even if we had the word "orange" earlier, we probably would have come up with some word for "red head".


Why don't we call blondes yellowheads then?


TIL that the concept of a soulmate was originally put forth by Plato. According to his story humans originally had 4 arms, 4 legs and 2 faces. The gods feared humans were too powerful and so Zeus split them in two, condemning them to spend their lives searching for the other half of their soul. (8/12/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Aristophanes was a comic, so this story was not meant to be taken literally. But the underlying metaphor survives even today, whenever you hear someone describe their "better half".


"When the folks roamed the Earth, Like big rolling kegs, they had, two set of arms and, two sets of legs!....


>In his dialogue The Symposium, Plato has Aristophanes present a story about soulmates. Aristophanes states that humans originally had four arms, four legs, and a single head made of two faces. He continues that there were three genders: man, woman and the "Androgynous", each with two sets of genitalia with the Androgynous having both male and female genitalia. The men were children of the sun, the women were children of the earth and the Androgynous were children of the moon, which was born of the sun and earth. It is said that humans had great strength at the time and threatened to conquer the gods. The gods were then faced with the prospect of destroying the humans with lightning as they had done with the Titans but then they would lose the tributes given to the gods by humans. Zeus developed a creative solution by splitting humans in half as punishment for humanity's pride and doubling the number of humans who would give tribute to the gods. These split humans were in utter misery to the point where they would not eat and would perish so Apollo had sewn them up and reconstituted their bodies with the navel being the only remnant harking back to their original form. Each human would then only have one set of genitalia and would forever long for his/her other half; the other half of his/her soul. It is said that when the two find each other, there is an unspoken understanding of one another, that they feel unified and would lie with each other in unity and would know no greater joy than that.


I too have watched Hedwig and the Angry Inch


Errr... note that this is the explanation of love given by Aristophanes, who was famous as a comedian, so I'm not sure that we should take it as a particularly genuine attempt by Plato in the way that we should, say, Socrates' description in the same text. Without the proper context, I think it's easy to misunderstand Plato's intent.


TIL that Christopher Columbus was jailed upon his return to Spain for mistreating the native population of Hispaniola (8/11/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Then you didn't learn anything because, and from your own post: *Columbus's strained relationship with the Spanish crown and its appointed colonial administrators in America led to his arrest and removal from Hispaniola in 1500, and later to protracted litigation over the benefits that he and his heirs claimed were owed to them by the crown.* All about the money.


Columbus refrained from Christianizing as many natives as he could *because you're not supposed to enslave fellow Christians.*


"But in truth, should I meet with gold or spices in great quantity, I shall remain till I collect as much as possible, and for this purpose I am proceeding solely in quest of them." Christopher Columbus


"These people are very unskilled in arms... with 50 men they could all be subjected and made to do all that one wished." Christopher Columbus


That’s what happened with Cortés too lol. When he got back it was basically like “oh wow that’s a lot more gold than we were expecting, how’d you manage that? WHAT?!!”


TIL that the Captain of the USS Indianapolis was court-martialed for its’ sinking in 1945. In 1996, a history project by a sixth grader cleared his name. (8/13/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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“Cleared of the charge of failing to order abandon ship, McVay was convicted of "hazarding his ship by failing to zigzag". Several aspects of the court-martial were controversial. There was evidence that the Navy itself had placed the ship in harm's way. McVay's orders were to "zigzag at his discretion, weather permitting"; however, McVay was not informed that a Japanese submarine was operating in the vicinity of his route from Guam to Leyte. Further, Mochitsura Hashimoto, commander of I-58, testified that zigzagging would have made no difference. Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz remitted McVay's sentence and restored him to active duty. McVay retired in 1949 as a rear admiral. **While many of Indianapolis's survivors said McVay was not to blame for the sinking, the families of some of the men who died thought otherwise: "Merry Christmas! Our family's holiday would be a lot merrier if you hadn't killed my son", read one piece of mail. The guilt that was placed on his shoulders mounted until he committed suicide in 1968, using his Navy-issued revolver. McVay was discovered on his front lawn by his gardener with a toy sailor in one hand, revolver in the other. He was 70 years old.**”


You would think that  "Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz remitted McVay's sentence and restored him to active duty" would be enough to show his innocence.


In middle school, we had a veteran visit who was aboard when it was torpedoed and sunk. He gave a first-hand account of the chaos and how the countless sharks around the area of the sinking plucked floating sailors through the ensuing days and nights. That was the only school speaker I will never forget listening to.


Eleven hundred men went into the water. Vessel went down in twelve minutes. Didn't see the first shark for about a half an hour. Tiger. Thirteen footer. You know how you know that when you're in the water, chief? You tell by lookin' from the dorsal to the tail. What we didn't know... was our bomb mission had been so secret, no distress signal had been sent. Huh huh. They didn't even list us overdue for a week.


If that ship had not been on top secret orders and radio silence the other ships would have known where they were they might have been rescued far earlier. Because there were ships close enough to do that.


TIL that the London Underground is getting hotter because the clay that the tunnels are dug into spent decades absorbing heat and has now reached maximum capacity, so it is now insulating the tunnels. When the tube was first built it was much cooler than the city above. (8/16/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Note on comments below- this isn't caused by climate change. It's more that clay is like a heat battery which absorbs heat and doesn't like emitting it. The clay has been absorbing heat for so long that the battery is full, meaning heat is instead remaining within the tunnels, steadily building up.


Its the absolute worst in winter. Outside it’s snowing and you need 3 layers, in the tube it’s like summer in Florida and you’re trying to strip off. Sometimes you have to sweat it out because there’s no room to scratch your nose let alone take your coat off.


That is motherfucking FASCINATING. Like those physics problems like "if heat blah blah time blah blah, then how long will it take before swamp ass overtakes the London underground?"


Reminds me of the Hoover dam, which keeps getting stronger as the cement dries.


Did they know this was going to happen eventually?


TIL in 1974, a lawyer wrote to the Cleveland Browns threatening to sue if their fans kept throwing paper airplanes at games, and got the reply ‘Attached is a letter that we received on November 19, 1974. I feel that you should be aware that some asshole is signing your name to stupid letters.’ (8/13/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Should've folded the letter into a plane and thrown it in through his window.


The reply was great.


There is an ART of how to call people assholes in a elegant way.


TIL that many TILs are from random askreddit comments.


Threatening to sue if **someone in his party gets injured** is a lot different than just suing if people keep throwing them.


TIL about Anatoli Brouchkov – a Russian scientist who injected himself with a 3.5 million year old strain of bacteria just to see what would happen. (8/11/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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TLDR nothing happened > he's feeling just fine. In fact, he says he's feeling healthier and less tired than ever. His most famous claim is that he hasn't had the flu in two years


I haven't had the flu in two years either and I didn't snort dinosaur bugs


Headline makes him sound crazy. He analyzed the bacteria and noticed it lasted longer than other bacteria and had a positive effect on the health of mice. He obviously wanted those effects.


This is how super-villains are born.


Scientists that experiment on themselves are 🔥.


TIL In Ancient Greece, prostitutes were classified into two classes; the Pornai and the Hetairai. The Pornai served many men at once, and frequently worked on the street. In contrast, Hetarai were educated, had few clients, and provided companionship and intellectual discussion as well as sex. (8/11/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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In the future they call them companions


Hetairai were pretty unique: they were some of the only women in Athens who were actually educated, and the only women who were allowed to attend male dinner parties. They were also the only women allowed to own property of their own. In some ways it was better to be a hetaira than a normal Athenian woman.


Difference between a hooker and escort.


imagine beeing a hetairai and making less buck then a romanian cam-pornai. times change.


Am I the only one that finds resemblance of Pornai to Porn and Hetarai to Hentai


TIL that the practice of playing music for callers on hold began with a faulty phone line connection. A loose wire touching the steel frame of an office building caused it to act as a giant radio receiver, allowing callers to hear music from local radio stations while they waited on hold. (8/15/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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The quality of music played when I'm on hold directly affects my patience with whoever I'm about to speak to.


Being able to hear radio stations on old copper land lines is actually rather common. A "radio suppressor" is put on lines when ppl complain they can hear something when talking on the phone besides the person they are calling. Sometimes it is just cross talk from other lines and sometimes you can hear music or commercials.


The wikipedia article linked does not site a reliable source. This story is likely apocryphal.


Haha dude patented his shit right away.


"nobody actually gave a fuck if callers had to sit on hold - but it was getting complements already so they implemented it like they'd invented it!"


Planet Earth 2 (2016) [Clip]: Wilson’s Bird of Paradise courtship is unreal (8/13/2019) ~ Documentaries

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He mates, and then begins calling out for more females immediately after. What a player!


That green reveal! I was ready for “showing off his colors” to be his bright red and blue we could already see and his fancy little tail feathers but then BAM The only for her green got me, not gonna lie.


Nature is sooo stunningly beautiful


Dude bird: Hey Chick bird: SHOW ME WHAT YOU GOT


Are you kidding Im on my fifth date with this girl and so far I've bought dinner, danced (I can't), talked foreign languages, played guitar (badly), sang (tolerably), and did it all in varying uncomfortable outfits. This bird is on fuckin easy street


TIL that in 1970, a pilot engaging in mock combat in an F-106 lost control in a dive, ejected, and then the plane righted itself, continued to fly, landed softly in a snowy field, then was later recovered with minimal damage and returned to service. (8/12/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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The pilot however was assigned to desk duty as his plane flew better without him


God: Alright. I guess I'll save you this one ti-- Pilot: *Ejects* God: H--hey! Where are you going?? . . . God: THIS STILL COUNTS!!!


Fine I'll just land myself -that jet


"The plane flies itself better than you can Jerry."


It's a very know story. The plane engaged in a flat spin. Flat spin equal 99% crash. When he ejected the plane went down because of the force of the ejection. And it ended the flat spin making the plane fly properly again


TIL: Australian wallabies are eating opium poppies and creating crop circles as they hop around “as high as a kite” (8/14/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Time for a war on hopped up wallabies!


who the hell does an article of stoned wallabies making crop circles while providing 0 photographs of said crop circles....


Jokes on us, we though the crop circles were aliens, Nope! Just wallaby opium parties....I wonder if they're aligned with the dolphins in the shenanigans...I imagine a thanks for all the fish!/Opium Hitch hikers guide to the galaxy song.


Anyone who has watched Rocko's Modern Life is in no way surprised that Wallabies are druggies.


They know how to party!


TIL To promote “The Room”, Tommy Wiseau personally spent $5,000 a month on a highway billboard advert for 5 years. This is in spite of the fact that the film only played for 2 weeks in the summer of 2003. Wiseau kept promoting it for years after it closed. (8/15/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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There were also apparently tons of bizarre rules on set, according to the disaster artist, the book Greg Sestero wrote: >I threw the ball to him as softly as possible, saying "Catch this!" in French. Tommy's eyes turned into grim, warlike slits. "No French!" he said. "No French words, dammit!" The crew watched in awe as Tommy abruptly charged and tackled me. Tommy was vehemently opposed to the inclusion of any foreign languages in his movie, and he hated it when other people he knew spoke a language other than English." WTF


He must be the most insane person in show business.


So he spent $300,000 on a f'n billboard ad? How did this clown even have money in the first place for making films and running billboard ads?


The story of this film is far weirder. Wiseau *purchased* all the cameras, and studio gear necessary to make the film, which is virtually *unheard of* - even large Hollywood blockbuster productions **rent** equipment as it’s all a tax write down and that kind of gear - particularly the cameras - gets upgraded every few years. Cameras and lenses are extremely expensive and are typically purchased by rental houses that keep them constantly rented out to pro productions. Wiseau *bought everything.* He allegedly made a small fortune in the garment industry, making him a multimillionaire, and he always dreamed of breaking into the entertainment industry. His films are amateur passion projects. He’s chasing a childhood dream with deep pockets and shallow natural ability.


My friend took a picture with Tommy once (at a screening of the Room at an Alamo Drafthouse). He shook Tommy's hand and put his arm around him for a photo, and he told me that Tommy felt really soft and squishy.


TIL that “Taco Tuesday” isn’t something just any restaurant can celebrate. It’s trademarked by a Wyoming-based chain called Taco John’s, which routinely sends cease-and-desist letters to other restaurants that use it. (8/14/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Every restaurant in San Diego has a Taco Tuesday special


At what point does this fall under generic trademark? Because I have heard taco Tuesday used thousands of times and have not once heard of Taco Johns, and I doubt taco johns has a market dominance over sales emanating from the term.


The Karen of restaurants


Well they’re running behind, many bars and restaurants here have a taco Tuesday special


Potato Oles are delicious though.


TIL the day Jimi Hendrix died, Eric Clapton had bought a left-handed Fender Stratocaster as a gift for him. He intended on presenting it during a Sly Stone concert at the Lyceum that night, but Hendrix never showed up. The next day, Clapton learned why. (8/14/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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You could say he was just a little slow handing it over


There's so so many early death tragedies in music, but this one for me is probably one of the most upsetting. Literally his career had only just got going.


"That fucker bailed on me! I hope he dies!" *learns that he died* "Oh shit"


Clapton is the only musician inducted into the Hall of Fame 3 times. Twice as part of a group ( Cream and...?) and once as a solo artist.


It's so wild to me how differently news spreads nowadays compared to back then. Imagine not knowing for a few days that a close friend died, a close FAMOUS friend.


TIL the whistling noise when bombs are dropped are an actual intentional design for psychological warfare in WW2. (8/16/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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How can we make raining bombs from the sky on these peeps worse? Whistles, bruh.


As someone who's lived through several months of mortar attacks, let me tell you what, silence is worse. The whistling is no picnic, but at least you know something is coming. With a mortar attack the first sign is when a building crumbles. At the point there isn't much you can do.


That's brilliant and fucked up


Fun Fact: If you were on the ground and these were dropped above you, the pitch would go from low to high (opposite of what we hear in movies and documentaries from the pilot's perspective) before you is fully blowed up. Edit: a word


Same with the German Stuka bombers. When they dive down, these little pods with fans on them create that classic divebomb sound. It was done completely for psychical warfare. During cruise in flight, they’d sound off and annoy the pilots, so the engineers came up with a switch to allow them to be shut off and on. I believe they were completely removed by the end of the war.


ELI5: How do spiders create brilliant webs through the night but by mid morning they disappear with no trace? Have they fallen prey to larger animals? (8/16/2019) ~ Explain Like I'm Five

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Spiders eat their own webs, digest them and re-spin them later. They do this because their webs become less sticky over time. They contain/take a lot of protein, so just leaving them would likely result in the spider starving to death. So they eat it, and squirt it out all sticky again.


I have two Orb Weavers that live in my front yard. Both make huge webs that go from the ground to the branches of my trees. Then they sit in the middle and wait for insects. Every morning they will take their webs down and go fuck off for the day. Then come night they remake the web. I have a timelapse i made of one. Shows him creating the web and then taking it down. I will post link in a while. EDIT: I have to get my old laptop guys! I will try my best to get it done today. I just woke up to a full inbox, and a message from reddit saying they noticed suspicious activity on my account. I will probably just post it on a subreddit instead of linking it here.


Spiders are true master builders. They are little engineering geniuses with the webs they build. This is hard to explain but I once lived at a house with one of those tall lamp posts on the lawn next to my drive way. A spider had constructed a web below the lamp. It was a brilliant place to put it because the light would attract god only knows how many insects to it. The fact that the spider had somehow figured this out was the first brilliant thing it did. The second was how this web was constructed. The lamp was at the edge of the lawn so there was nothing near it. There was a hedge of arborvitaes across on the other side of the driveway. This spider knew that he had to find something to attach one side of the web to otherwise it would not work. The web would have been really small and effectively useless. What this spider did truly astonished me. It somehow spun a single spool of web from the lamp clear across the driveway to the other side where it was attached to a branch of one of the arborvitaes. It was a distance of about 10 feet. This created a kind of “top beam” from which he was able to construct a triangle shaped web. One side was mounted against the lamp while the other was strewn across this “top beam” created from stringing it to the arborvitae. Unbelievable. I really hope I’m explaining this right and that someone can appreciate the skill this spider showed. I know they’re creepy and all but you have to admire their skills. I know I do.


If you're referring to the *spider* disappearing, as opposed to the web, most of the time they haven't disappeared at all. They're just hiding where you can't see them, waiting for their next meal to get caught in the web.


I think OP is asking about why you'll often find empty webs. Often the spider is just hiding up in a corner of the web, but yes, they do sometimes get eaten by other animals. Birds, fish, bats, lizards, wasps, and many other things like to eat spiders. Some spiders also eat other spiders. The spider may also have just died or have fallen from its web.


From 1% To 30% Solar Power Without Losing Farmland (8/12/2019) ~ Futurology

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I fly aerial survey and I've seen a lot of big cities from above. You see a lot of detail from only 1500 feet above the ground. From Casper to Chicago to Montreal and Phoenix, there is a lot to be seen from above. There is especially a lot of warehouse rooftop space sitting idle, contributing nothing to society. Imagine if all those warehouses were covered with solar panels. In a city like Phoenix or Chicago there are several square miles worth of useless warehouse roof space alone and that could contribute a considerable amount of power to the local grid.


I was talking with a member of my wife’s extended family this weekend and he said he’s signed a contract to put a solar farm on his farm. The first few years are for surveying, permits, and infrastructure, then they’ll install. The reasons they wanted his land are that he (and his neighbors) are very close to an existing transfer station, and because their location allows them to serve DFW while other areas further west are disconnected. Why does he want to do it? Well he said that it goes against his beliefs as a farmer, but they’re going to pay him 30x more than he earns using that field to graze, and he can’t pass that up.


I would think an ideal combo might be a sod farm, supporting grazing herds with solar and wind sharing the same grid connection. Toss in a few batteries and this land is working hard! I notice, in most of the photos accompanying this type of articles, that the grazing animals seem to like being able to take advantage of the shade and I assume that controlling the sunlight that reaches plants should allow a more profitable range of crops for a given location.


Rotational grazing with cows/chickens and general permaculture practices could make this even more carbon neutral and efficient. Birds scratch the manure in and stop the fly cycle. This would likely be the best thing for grass fed beef and pasture raised free range chicken.


They have to build solar panels taller otherwise the goats will jump on and break them


If I Were From Beijing (2019)- In China, there’s no goo gle, face book, you tube, wiki… Instead, the regime has built its own online offer. Let’s take a look at it. How is world portrayed to Chinese people? What occupies their screens? Through the eyes of a Chinese… (8/13/2019) ~ Documentaries

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Can anyone here who's currently living in mainland China or uses their social media tell us what the average person thinks about the situation in Hong Kong


It’s very sobering to observe the total control that the rulers in China have over their population. The mind control and programming is far more pervasive than that which we endured as JWs. I am watching the events in HK and wondering just how they will pan out. Control will be paramount.


Something that no one is talking about is that this is how "terrorists" (or freedom fighters) are made. If you have 2-3 generations that went through oppression, a taste of freedom and then the original bully wants to take that freedom away again, you have had enough taste of a democracy to know that you don't bow down to the original bully. If someone gets a taste of freedom that they pass onto their children, and then that freedom is stripped from them, you have a generation that remembers and a new generation that knows freedom is a right. If there's anything worth fighting for or getting revenge over its that.


"they are satisfied because they dont know whats missing"


Don't really miss facebook at all. I pretty much use VPNs 99% of the time. Some websites I use aren't banned (yet) so that's nice I guess. Google, reddit, and wiki works fine with VPN but the problem is youtube. Having a slow youtube in China sucks real bad. The great firewall sucks. Another thing that sucks is how inconveinent life is without having an ID card or a debit card linked to a foreign passport.


TIL Stanford University developed Artificial Intelligence which can guess if a person is gay, based on a photo of their face, with 91% accuracy on dating sites. (8/16/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Finally the gaydar we all need!


AI detected 100% gay on Grindr. 9% wrong coz they were bots/catfish.


But does it know who’s penis will open up to accept the other penis?


Finally, the best use of Jin Yang’s Hot Dog/Not Hot Dog technology.


No one tell russia about this... or most the places in the middle east... and a lot of arfrica may not be good pick to be allowed to access this. now that i think about it a lot of the world is really backwords. that's really sad. &#x200B; Edit: South America (apart from guyana) is cooler then i thought when it comes to lgbt rights.


TIL the most successful pirate captain of the Golden Age of Piracy, “Black” Bart, had very strict rules on his ship, prohibiting all lights and drinking after 8 in the evening. There was also a complete ban on gambling. If a crew member got hurt, he received a pension proportionate to his injury (8/13/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Unfortunately for Captain Bartholomew Roberts, drinking during the day time was still customary, especially after a capture, and many of his crew were drunk and unfit for duty during his last battle, when he was shot in part because of his helmsman's error.


Pirate Ships almost always were a total Democracy, everything they did was put to vote.


That man sounds like a decent boss and very shrewd businessman.


Never forgive the betrayal of the Sage...


So the Royal Navy gave you a half a pint a day of 100 proof rum, and this jerk didn't allow drinking after sunset. I know where I'll be chadding it up on the high seas.


TIL in 2012, a civilian working on the submarine USS Miami wanted to get off work early so he started a fire that soon spread out of control and ultimately resulted in the boat being decommissioned. He was sentenced to 17 years in federal prison and ordered to pay $400 million in restitution. (8/16/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Where's he supposed to get $400M from while he's in prison? Poor planning.


Fuck, and and I thought E-4s were the pinnacle of sham.

BuckinghamHelmet least he doesn't have to work anymore.


My brother was on that sub, and was pissed because he had extra duty as a result when he was about to get out of the Navy. Some guy fell down one of the ladders that go between the different "floors" trying to escape and broke his ribs.


Remember that time, when you were so dumb you ruined a sub and your life?


TIL that Fatboy Slim sampled so many songs to create “The Rockafeller Skank” (also known as “Funk Soul Brother”) that he had to give up 100% of the song’s royalties to pay the original artists. (8/16/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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If someone were to sample music from this song, would said person pay royalties to Fatboy Slim, or to the various artists that were sampled from?


And it was money well spent, too. That's a great track.


Really? I'll have to check it out now.


they (the various people sampled) originally ended up asking for a total of like 150% of the royalties. and they all had to come to an agreement that would net out to 100%


And I'd imagine that each of those artists sampled probably make more from royalties of this song than from their original songs. I have nothing to back that up, but feel free to spread it as if it's fact.


TIL about pOCD, or pedophilia OCD in which a person gets high anxiety from being around or thinking of children for fear of being sexually attracted to them, despite having no actual attraction or urges. (8/11/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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One time I was helping my sister move some furniture over her house, We moved a dresser and she wanted to vacuum the spot it was at before moving the rest of the things, so I decided I'd go play with my nephew, so he brings me into his room, locks the door, proceeds to say "Uncle sedition- I wanna show you my Halloween costume, but only you." and tried to start changing. I noped out of there so fucking fast because of how awkward that situation sounded in my head, even though I would sooner chop my hand off before thinking that way about any kid, let alone my nephew.


Just being around kids that aren't yours these days seems dangerous.


I don't wanna exaggerate dude but I think you may have saved my life. Due to a lot of personal issues my mental health has been deteriorating and this has been happening. I felt awful, disgusted with myself and isolated because I thought this didn't happen to anyone else. This is interesting af.


I found out about this my senior year from looking up OCD for a psych project and I literally cried for an hour because I finally understood and didn't feel so gross, I didn't babysit for half a year because i would always worry that I was having anxiety about bathing them or sitting on their bed to tell them a story goodnight.


If I’m right, I think people are confusing that this actually is. It seems that pOCD is when you fear that you will get pedophillic thoughts if you see/are around children. People are reading it as fearing that people might think of you as a pedo if you are around the child. The second one sounds more like just paranoia more than what this is described as


Finding Vivian Maier (2013) – A documentary on the late Vivian Maier, a nanny whose previously unknown cache of 100,000 photographs earned her a posthumous reputation as one of the most accomplished street photographers. (8/16/2019) ~ Documentaries

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This documentary is captivating. My and my husband saw it by 'mistake' at the cinema few years ago. We were in the wrong room, and by the time we realised it wasn't a preview we were so much into it we decided to stay. Well worth a watch!


From what I understand, she was a shit nanny? Not very Mary Poppins like


I watched this several years ago, having no background in photography or any real idea what the documentary was really about. I have to say, I found it completely engaging. It made me want to look at the world from different perspectives and use my camera more, Nice recommendations!


I loved this doc.


This lady took pictures of me and my brothers as children in Roger's Park area of Chicago. The documentary about her is absolutely fascinating.


TIL the CEO of GM, Mary Barra, changed the workplace dress code from a complicated 10-page document to two words: “Dress appropriately.” (8/15/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Microsoft's dress code used to be "This company values intelligence over fashion."


The Further east you go, the higher the dress code.. the further west, the lower.. London -> Armani suit with Cuff-links nyc -> Jacket, tie, matching pants, dress shirt usually white or blue Chicago-> dress pants and shirt with a collar (could be a polo). a Jacket added if you're a manager, and a customer is coming in. California -> please wear shoes, a customer is coming on-site! Detroit (where Mary Barra resides and works) is somewhere in-between NYC and Chicago. My guess at GM.. if you don't know how the sausage is made, you dress to impress.. If you know the details about making/designing cars, you dress comfortably without looking frumpy..


IOW, i won't tell you what i want, so do something until you get screamed at. Which means they have no code, but empowers the manager even more. As the article explains: >Still, she pushed back against the pushback, insisting, for example, that the manager with the jeans-wearing employees try to work out a solution. A few weeks later, they talked again, and the manager said his team had reached its own easy solution--come to work in jeans, but keep some nicer clothes at work in case they needed to change for an outside meeting. > >"Problem solved," Barra said, adding that "the big 'a-ha' was that you need to make sure your managers are empowered, because if they can't handle 'dress appropriately,' what other judgment decisions are they not making?" Dress appropriately isn't even a guideline. It just says that whether you are dressed appropriately is up to your manager. This is vague and will change by manager. A much better approach would be to keep the ten pages and *add* a rule that the manager can *exempt* you from the rules. This empowers both the manager and the employee. In short, Barra wasn't up to the job, so she created a gimmicky policy that took away rights from the employees putting even the way they dress at the mercy of their manager. If she really didn't want a dress code, there should be no dress code at all, not one with the super vague word, "appropriately". In truth, it usually doesn't matter, because people can get sued over commenting on another's dress.


In Indiana, this means your best Tom Hardy shirt, no more than 10 visible piercings, only swastika tattoos need to be covered and if your name is tattooed on your face, it has to be spelled correctly.


I had a manager at a bank that I no longer work for in Canada.. lets just say they like the colour green. This manager used to harrass people about clothing.. to the point she told one of the tellers that the knit in her crocheted sweater was too loose and meant that her bare shoulders could be seen, and wasn't appropriate. Also it was just a light sweater to wear over her dress, so it wasn't inappropriate. I can't tell you how much people disliked that manager for being so nit picky and how little respect they had for her. They called her the Clothing Nazi.


TIL of Clarence Elkins, who was wrongly imprisoned for the murder of his mother-in-law and assault of his 6-year-old niece. His wife worked hard to exonerate him and found a likely suspect who was in the same jail as him. Clarence collected a cigarette he’d used. His DNA matched. (8/15/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Jesus, that's awful. What a miscarriage of justice. I do not understand how he could be convicted soley on a 6 year old's testimony while he had an air tight alibi. Also not great that the prosecutor of that case is now the chief justice of the ohio supreme court.


So the 6 year old victim...brooke...who was beaten and raped went to the neighbor (later turned out to be partner of the real rapist) and this happened.. "Brooke then walked to a neighbor's house, the home of Earl Mann's common-law-wife, and knocked on the door. Tonia Brasiel came to the door, told the nightgown-clad, bruised and bloody child she was cooking breakfast for her children and told her to wait on the porch until she could drive her home, which she did approximately 45 minutes later.[" What the actual fuck?


After all her hard work to exonerate him, they get divorced less than a year after his release. Real bummer.


"The judge ruled that because the jury convicted Elkins without the DNA results, it was likely that he would have been convicted even if the DNA did not match." What an un-fucking-believable thing for a judge to say. Cunt.


This is the only case in US history where an Attorney General filed as a witness for the defense, when the District Attorney fought to block the DNA test. I read Jim Petro's book *False Justice: Eight Myths that Convict the Innocent* while locked up, and I'm actually a bit surprised it wasn't banned. After the Elkins case, Petro declined to run again and started working as an advocate for reform.


TIL King You of Zhou deposed his wife, Shen, for his concubine, Bao Si. To entertain Bao Si, You would light fake war beacons and Bao Si would mock the tricked warlords. Shen’s father rebelled and overthrew King You. The rebellion succeeded because no warlords responded to You’s war beacons. (8/12/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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>In 779 BC, a concubine named Bao Si entered the palace and came into the King You's favour. She bore him a son named Bofu.[1] King You deposed Queen Shen (申后) and Crown Prince Yijiu. He made Baosi the new queen and Bofu the new crown prince.[2] >It is said that Baosi did not laugh easily. After trying many methods and failing, King You tried to amuse his favorite queen by lighting warning beacons and fooling his nobles into thinking that the Quanrong nomads were about to attack. The nobles arrived at the castle only to find themselves laughed at by Baosi. Even after King You had impressed Baosi, he continued to abuse his use of warning beacons and lost the trust of the nobles.[3] >Queen Shen's father, the Marquess of Shen, was furious at the deposition of his daughter and grandson Crown Prince Yijiu and mounted an attack on King You's palace with the Quanrong. King You called for his nobles using the previously abused beacons but none came. In the end, King You and Bofu were killed and Baosi was captured.[4]


I kept getting confuseds with the Yous and Tos


"King who?" "You" &#x200B; "Me?" "No, You" &#x200B; "What do you want from me!?" &#x200B; "Not you, You, the king!" "I'm not a king" &#x200B; "I know, I'm talking about You, You know You?" "THAT'S WHAT I'M ASKING *YOU"* &#x200B; "Not possible, he's dead" &#x200B; "WHAT"


Is this real? Sounds like the chinese incarnation of the western fable of "The Boy Who Cried Wolf."


Congratulations, You played Yourself.


TIL It’s estimated that up to 90% of the wildlife found on Madagascar is found nowhere else on Earth (8/16/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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We should put a fence around Madagascar so they don’t get out.


It's almost like there's some kind of geographic barrier that keeps the wildlife of Madagascar contained there, and ensured it evolved independently from the rest of nature.


Islands overall tend to have very bizarre wildlife due to isolation. Hawaii has carnivorous caterpillars, New Zealand has giant crickets, etc.


Well duh! If they're currently in Madagascar, they can't very well be someplace else at the same time. Wait...


I’m pretty sure they went to New York once.


TIL of Virginia Wade who makes $30K a month writing Bigfoot porn erotica (8/13/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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I'm sorry did you say you have a big foot fetish or a bigfoot fetish?


The headline is misleading. > During her **best months**, she says, she netted $30,000 or more. At worst, she'd bank around six grand — "nothing to complain about," she says.


Is that called a ‘Yetish’?


Someone listens to Joe Rogan....


When she retires, she's going to have some pretty big shoes to fill.


TIL For 10 years, Emerich Juettner printed poorly made counterfeit $1 bills (Washington was spelled Wasihgton). He never used more than $1 at a time and never in the same place twice. He was caught only after a fire at his apartment. He was sentenced to one year and one day in prison, and a $1 fine. (8/14/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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A few years back, some dude was spending $200 bills in El Paso. They had George Bush's picture on them. When he got busted, all they could charge him with was petty theft. Apparently, it's not counterfeiting of you are spreading non existant denominations.


Did he pay with a counterfeit $1 though?


I would watch this movie, kind of a sad story- “After his wife's, death Juettner had limited financial means. In 1938 Juettner began using, ten to twelve homemade counterfeited bills a week in, select stores in the neighborhoods of Manhattan. Over the following ten, years Juettner continued to use his counterfeited, bills sparingly never, repeating storefronts or tenders. The bills were always poorly, made on cheap paper and included details such as Washington being, spelled "Wasihngton”...


A movie, Mister 880, was made based on the story. He earned more from the movie than he ever made counterfeiting. Also, he only spent 4 months in jail.


For 10 years he never gave a fake bill to the same person/store. I wanna see how far he was walking for his groceries!


TIL that Darwin’s finches, a classic example of evolution, are being rapidly killed due to an infectious parasite that damages their beaks, preventing them from producing mating calls and as a result, reproducing. The larvae also infest the nests and feed on the blood and tissue of the nestlings. (8/11/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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The fittest of them shall survive and repopulate.


I guess you'd call the parasites a classic example of evolution then, huh?


Maybe they are evolving to have no beak


Finches ain’t the only things evolving. Keep up, birdos.


Is this somehow humans fault?


TIL In 1950, a Nebraska church exploded during what was meant to be choir practice. But no one in the 15-person choir was hurt or killed, because they were all running late for different reasons. No one was in the building when it went up in flames. (8/13/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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They were running late because it was a Baptist Church


Mmmmm, insurance fraud


I remember an episode of Unsolved Mysteries dedicated to this story. They had interviews with some of the members and reenacted their various stories.


As a musician who has played in many bands and orchestras, and sung in choirs, this incident confirms my theory. "Rehearsal at 7:00" Anyone playing an instrument shows up at 6:30 or earlier. The conductor lowers the baton at 7:00 and you better be there. Vocalists regard 7:00 as the earliest time they might show up. When I arrive at 6:45, it's pretty lonely. (I once left an a capella rehearsal because I was the only one there at the starting time. I figured I got the date wrong. I later got a "where are you?" text.) Now, of course, the people with instruments have to assemble their horns, get the music out, and play a few notes, but still, they end up chatting for the last 15 or more minutes before the rehearsal begins.


Even in 1950 no one was thrilled to do extra stuff at church.


Why did the UK agree to return Hong Kong to China in 1997? 🇬🇧🇭🇰🇨🇳 (8/14/2019) ~ History

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Dear Commentors, When commenting in /r/history remember we have rules against Current Politics (**Rule 2**) and a 20 year moratorium (**Rule 5**) Also, in reference to the previous sticky: Sticky Comments are almost never directed at the OP . . .if we thought the original post broke the rules, we wouldn't have approved it to be visible in the first place. . .why do I have to explain these things? Sincerely, Your Jack-Booted Moderator.


This is one of those historical situations that are multi faceted. You are correct when asserting that the UK had the legal right to maintain some of the islands in the Hong Kong area while the majority of the territory returned to the PRC. The reason they returned the small islands along with the rest of Hong Kong has a few reasons. For one, the British government’s view on its empire had been shifting from one of heavy control to one that resembled a loose commonwealth (more what it is today). This shift in attitude began post-WW2 and by the 90s, the British Empire was seen as a relic of the past and that maintaining the Commonwealth was the most logical and cost-effective means of action. Hong Kong would have been an incredibly valuable part of the Commonwealth, but only if the Hong Kong island and Kowloon Peninsula (the most developed and populous regions) were kept. Given that those two main parts had to be given back, and also because the smaller islands that could have been kept required significant development, investment, and immigration of settlers, the future for the UK in that region seemed very expensive and improbable. Second, the PRC and UK don’t exactly see eye to eye when it comes to global politics and ideology. The PRC would have no issue attempting to asset some kind of dominance over the UK islands should they decide to keep them. This was a foreign policy fiasco that the UK decided to avoid by just giving the Chinese what they would eventually want. Hong Kong is in a vague legal limbo in terms of its territorial status. It officially became a special administrative region under the PRC. Hong Kong was granted a number of political privileges and freedoms not granted to other parts of China. However, the PRC granted these rights temporarily, and will re-evaluated Hong Kong’s status (along with nearby Macau) in 2047. Thus the UK government could foresee the political mess that could arise around territorial claims and projection in that region going into the future. The PRC’s growing power (military and economy) was a force the UK could see becoming a major threat and they decided to make a safe play for the long game. In short: UK saw those islands and not a worthwhile investment. They also wanted to avoid trouble with China Edit: Also, forgot to elaborate on this. By the late 90s the UK was in no position to contest the PRC’s growing hegemonic power in east-Asia. The days of the British Empire were long gone and the PRC was the new power in the region, a PRC military seizure of Hong Kong would have been easy. This is why the handover is seen by many as the end of the British Empire. On another note, thanks for the upvotes! Edit of edit: holy, thanks so much for the upvotes! Not bad for a first post!


The portions of Hong Kong that we had legal permanent claim to received most of their supplies (particularly fresh water) from the portions that would be given back. This meant that, unless the UK wanted to supply it themselves or build desalination infrastructure, Hong Kong would be without a source of clean water and other resources so it simply wasn't logical to keep the territory as the PRC would rather see the island die than be outside of their China. Also fact of the matter is that China is a waxing power and Britain is a waning one. We do not have sufficient military might to hold Hong Kong alone and the world would be unlikely to support Britain in maintaining an overseas territory even with NATO's defensive clauses. The only reason the PRC didn't invade Hong Kong is likely due to the fact that there was the 99 year lease on greater Hong Kong so they knew that they would get it (and likely the rest of Hong Kong) without violence and diplomatic crisis. TL;DR: Britain had no choice. Holding the parts we had permanent claim to would be cruel to the people of Hong Kong, would be short lived, and would cost us more in the long run.


In 1982, Margaret Thatcher went to China to negotiate Hong Kong. During talks with Thatcher, China planned to invade and seize Hong Kong if the negotiations set off unrest in the colony. Thatcher later said that Deng told her bluntly that China could easily take Hong Kong by force, stating that "I could walk in and take the whole lot this afternoon", to which she replied that "there is nothing I could do to stop you, but the eyes of the world would now know what China is like." The British tried to keep a role on Hong Kong island, but after numerous rounds of negotiating realized China wasn't going to accept that, and they knew that once China had the rest of Hong Kong, it would be trivially easy to take the rest and they never had a chance at fighting China. So they caved. In return, they avoided a major war with China (or rather, they avoided the spectacle of China taking all of Hong Kong and the UK looking and being absolutely powerless to stop it).


Well the British Empire took something by force and made the Chinese sign a treaty and the Chinese government made sure that the British understood that it regards these treaties forced upon China through a war as unequal treaties that must be abolished one way or the other. &#x200B; It is indeed strange to think that because the British seized these territories from a country through a war and codify them, the other country cannot use war to threaten them back? The legal right to hold them is base on the concept that someone put a gun to your face and say sign it or else. If that is a legal right then so too is China pointing a gun and say give it back or else.


The Mysteries of Hieronymus Bosch (1980) If you have ever wondered why the paintings of Hieronimous Bosch are so intriguing, watch this. It’s is, by far, one if the best analysis of his life, character, and work I have ever seen. Hats off to Nicholas Baum, wherever he may be. (8/14/2019) ~ Documentaries

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Yes!!!!!!!!!!!!!! The Garden is my favorite painting, Bosch is absolutely fascinating. I love this documentary. Thank you so much.


So, a handful of the images have found to be sayings or insults of the day. The way this is known is by the few that made it into the literary books of the time and region he was doing these works. The images are depictions of phrases kind of like: 1980's phrases like, "gag me with a spoon" or "eat my shorts" or 1990's phrases like, "talk to the hand" or "all that and a bag of chips. Due to pop-culture not being forever due to its slang nature, the pop-culture slang of Bosch's era is likely gone to the ashes of linguistic evolution.


TiL the origin of Harry Bosch's (fictional detective in novels and Amazon's TV series) name.


\>"Such an ordinary, boring, commercial town" \>Footage of the most beautiful little village Do Europeans not understand how pretty their continent is?


Zeg maar gewoon Jeroen, hoor.


TIL in most of the USA it is illegal to buy a car directly from the manufacturer. You have to go through a car dealership where they charge even more money. (8/11/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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It's not in the article, but I've previously read that an argument they used to pass the laws is that car buying in a complex, and big decision, and dealerships can help guide customers through it. I find this hilarious because car salespeople are for the most part, useless, unknowledgeable about their cars, and couldn't care less about the customer. Ridding this country of car dealerships would be an amazing thing.


Yeah, it is a real pain in the butt. My spouse works for a large automobile manufacturer, and they really hate having to sell through dealerships, especially since they are unable to control how the dealerships represent themselves to their clients. Many people who have a bad experience at one dealership often discount the whole brand of vehicle just because a dealership is not very customer friendly.


This is most industries, not just cars. I work in the plumbing industry. We get our stock directly from the manufacturers, and sell to retailers. The retailers can't even go straight to the manufacturers, they have to go through us. And the public can't come to us, they have to go through the retailers. It's bullshit. But it did help me learn why it costs $0.05 to make something and ultimately cost $5 in a store. Lots of hands.


So much for free markets.


It's illegal because someone(s) paid a lot of money for lawmakers to make it illegal.


In the future, only the rich will be able to escape the unbearable heat from climate change. In Iraq, it’s already happening (8/11/2019) ~ Futurology

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This is why cheap solar is so important. In these already arid hot countries solar is the fastest way to provide the energy they will need to run AC units, fans and keep food cold. &#x200B; Egypt and Saudi are investing heavily in solar.


I can totally see a surge of semi-rich people migration to Iceland, northern Europe etc. due to the climate change (frankly, I'm even considering that at some point, though I live in Poland) Wouldn't be suprised if for example Iceland imposed some limits or payments at some point due to immigration rise. I'm afraid that this won't be a problem to really rich people, as they will be able to afford living in fully air conditioned estates or even whole neighbourhoods or districts (imagine Beverly Hills covered with some kind of dome maintaining constant temperature and weather) And as always, the poor will have it the worst. EDIT: Qatar sheikhs promised FIFA air conditioned football/soccer stadiums for 2022 World championships, so apparently it is happening EDIT2: If you haven't done that already, I recommend reading "The Sheep Look Up" by John Brunner. His solution to environment destruction is... Disturbing


idk how i feel about this article. what i got from it is just “iraq is super hot but theyre having a hard time supplying electricity to everyone because of infrastructure problems. i feel like this article couldve been written 50 years ago and still be relevant but they just shoehorned the climate change talk


But don’t AC increase the overall heat in the country....? Singapore is experiencing it


This will be the thing that gets them dragged from their mansions into the street Because people who are too hot can get angry


TIL about “lonely negatives,” such as disgust, disheveled, inept and inert. These are words that, due to a prefix or suffix, appear as though they should have a positive root but none exists or it has vanished from usage. (8/11/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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You’re looking heveled today. Very ept


I'm whelmed. Feelin the aster.


I thought inept was built off of an archaic spelling of *apt*.


I would have thought gusto and disgust were related.


Very chalant


Ebola drugs trial shows ‘90% survival rate’ (8/13/2019) ~ Futurology

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I *just* finished reading a book called “The Hot Zone” about the history of Ebola’s discovery and early research on it in the United States. It’s a fascinating, horrifying book, and it’s brilliant to see how far we’ve done since the late 90s/early 00s.


Progress in treating ebola is excellent. The mortality rate from it is not so high, but the societal damages that it inflicts are vast. Ebola is an invisible killer that sweeps out families. It hits particularly hard those who try to care for each other and maintain clean environments, for cleaning is both necessary to maintain an environment free of infectious materials as well as an activity that can bring one into contact *with* infectious material; medical professionals attending the outbreaks have died of this disease from mistakes they are less likely than anyone to make. Ebola is like a cosmic oppression declaring that people in the regions affected will live nearer unto hell and have far less trust in each other. It has even reduced trust in medical responders in ways that greatly complicate efforts to provide medical aid against outbreaks. Every advance in providing new options and capabilities in the medical treatment of ebola is another opportunity to bring new resources and new approaches to bear upon the problem, and to further push this invisible oppressor into history's harmless hall.


Big Pharma: “That will be $100,000 per pill. You’ll need 3 pills a day for a month. That’ll be $9M. Will that be cash, check or charge?”


But aren't there multiple strains? Does this work on all forms of ebola? Article doesn't say anything about that and I know better than to be hyped by hot air.


Guess people will have to choose another disease for predictions of apocalypse now then.


TIL there was a Tennessee Republican politician who changed his middle name to ‘Low tax’ so that it would appear on the ballot box, murdered his political opponent in a later senatorial race, was sentenced to life and died in prison. (8/16/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Oh, I first thought murder as in a figure of speech. That he destroyed competition by doing this, however it being illegal somehow. Though a life long sentence might have been slightly long.


Should have changed his middle name to innocent of murder, then he’d be in the clear


After he murdered his opponent, he couldn't be removed from the race because there were less than two weeks to the election. His opponent's followers therefore organized a mass write-in campaign and elected the dead opponent's wife. This is what spurred the state legislature to change the law about removing people from the ballot before the election.


So that's where Rich Kyanka got his middle name from...


So that's where our low taxes went....


A silent war (2011) documentary on how india is causing flood and water crisis in Bangladesh (8/15/2019) ~ Documentaries

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Just a warning. There are images of dead children in this video.


Florida, Georgia and Alabama have been arguing about the aquifer for years. Has anybody considered not rebuilding new Orleans which is FIFTEEN feet below sea level. What about Manhattan? China will take the water from India- is that the solution? Truly a global crises.


I don't know how India can control nature when states like Assam itself are ravaged by deluge every year. The river Bhramaputra carries so much water especially during rainy season that it floods every year. I hope the govt finds a solution to it.


Is it still happening?What's the status now?


Is this documentary's title a reference to the classic bleak geographical book about Bangladesh published in the 1970s called *A Quiet Violence*?


Researchers Find Proteins That Might Restore Damaged Sound-Detecting Cells in The Ear (8/13/2019) ~ Futurology

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As as sufferer of tinnitus & hearing loss, with random earaches and a host of anxiety issues as a result of this never ending screeching noise... I look almost daily for advances in this industry. I'm just happy to see there's a lot more being done now than there was before. One day there WILL be a treatment that actually reduces the volume/ intensity of tinnitus and hopefully soon after a cure. In whatever form it will come. Whether it's surgery, gene therapy, stem cells, drugs, gut bacteria / inflammation help, I don't care. I'll try whatever works.


As someone who has lost about half their hearing in one ear to Sudden Sensorineural Hearing loss/has non-stop tinnitus as a result, these advancements can’t come soon enough...


I sure hope so... I’m not even 1/4 through my life and I’m already noticeably losing my hearing


I was under the impression that hearing damage was permanent and could never be reversed, but this is exciting news. I always worry about my hearing (which is starting to go at such a young age), and I'm not looking forward to the day that I have to wear a hearing aid.


I'm missing the top 3/4 of the normal range of human hearing. It maxes out around 5000 Hz. Been that way since I had meningitis as a baby. It's actually quite nice. I can't hear nails on a chalkboard, the flip of a coin, or those high-pitched recordings used to disperse crowds of loitering youngsters. The rest of my hearing is perfect. I wonder if I would get anything from such a treatment except the ability to hear the more annoying range of noises in the world.


TIL that in 1900 the Chinatown in Honolulu was intentionally burned down to prevent the further spread of plague. Four months later, Honolulu was plague-free. (8/11/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Arthas would be proud


Tl;dr they set controlled fires, burned trash, cleaned and disinfected buildings.


Cleansed by fire




what did they do with the people? &#x200B; (cant load link, reddit hug of death) found wiki: The 7,000 homeless residents were housed in detention camps to maintain the quarantine until April 30. A total of 40 people died of the plague. &#x200B; daammnnn, forced detention, hardcore.


TIL Christian “Flake” Lorenz, Keyboardist for Rammstein, Was initially reluctant to join the band because he thought they would be “Too Boring” (8/15/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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I hear ya. If you've seen one guy shooting 30 foot flames out of his face, you've seen em all. *yawn*


I'm not joining the band unless you eventually put me in a cooking pot and shoot fire at me while I play!


I watched this guy get beat with dildos during a show. It was great.


well minus the dildo box set and flamethrower guitars i can kinda see it?


Well they sure showed him lol. They’re probly the best performance band in the world


Acres of saltwater pools in the desert are growing an algae food revolution (8/11/2019) ~ Futurology

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Algae and yeasts are super foods. " Just one tablespoon of spirulina or chlorella (blue-green **algae**) provides four grams of protein, along with a healthy dose of calcium, iron, magnesium, and potassium. You'll also get B vitamins and vitamin A (beta-carotene), along with essential fats. "


This is exciting stuff, cant wait to see where this goes in the next 10 years.


Oh wow does this remind me of Battle Star Galatica. When they find that planet with insane amounts of a blue green algae and harvest as much as they can. They eat this stuff until the end of the series.


I lived on a kibbutz in the southern desert in Israel and we had an algae farm there, it was incredibly fascinating. They do AMAZING desert agriculture work there. If you’re interested, check out the Arava Institute for Environmental Science on Kibbutz Ketura. Apparently this algae can be processed into cosmetics, vitamins, etc. We took green algae from the farm and ran it through miles of glass piping to turn it into red algae - the change is caused by the sun’s UV so the desert is a perfect place for it. I spent days painting the ground under and around the glass piping white to reflect more of the sun’s UV rays.


Maybe i've read too much science fiction but this feels like stuff i've seen in dystopic novels


TIL of John Corcoran, a teacher who taught for 17 years while being illiterate. He struggled in the 6th grade and never learned to read or write, and cheated his way through college. At the age of 47, he finally learned when he was inspired by Barbara Bush advocating for adult literacy. (8/16/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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I understand this isn’t the point of the article, but I find it very telling that a man—who was unable to read—was able to make his way through not only our general education system, but also able to obtain a degree in education. This planet is stupid.


I never quite understand older adults who never learned to read. At a certain point, it's way more effort to fake it than just sitting down and learning how to read.


Reading the article, it seemed he spent a lot of effort into faking it but never into actually learning how to read. I mean he got good enough at copy typing to be at 65 words a minute. Blows my mind.


Serious questions: How did he grade papers? Did he use TAs?


"Fake it til you make it" is this guy's motto.


TIL The Japanese repair broken pottery with gold lacquer to highlight imperfections. The process is called Kintsugi. The art of Kintsugi teaches that broken objects are not something to hide but to display with pride. (8/16/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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"let me get this straight... You want to pour liquid gold into my broken $4 bowl? .... I'll eat the loss..."


"The Japanese repair broken pottery..." **There are a few people in Japan that do a neat art thing.


People have been doing it in the West for a long time as well.... Usually porcelain items fixed with small metal staples often the work was completed by "dentists" In the late part of the 20th century antique collectors would buy these often discounted and repair with modern epoxy and paint to finish and do a professional restore. Making these once Franken-ware indistinguishable from a cared for heirloom. However recently it has become en vouge to collect these often inventively repaired items


Good Death Cab album too!


It's really a beautiful way to reclaim broken pottery. Philosophically it allows us to acknowledge the chaos and flaws around us and instead of just throwing out or replacing the piece it can be salvaged. If done well the restored piece can transcend its perfect, flawless form.


/r/AskHistorians Floating Feature: Come over to share and read some great Military History (8/11/2019) ~ History

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Floating Features in /r/AskHistorians are intended to be lightly moderated threads with open-ended prompts, to allow for a variety of contributions from all users. We encourage you to come over to both write and read!


TIL About Adolf Wölfli, a psychotic mental patient who spontaneously took up drawing to calm himself. His work included a monumental and epic illustrated book of 45 volumes, 25,000 pages, 1,600 illustrations, and 1,500 collages in which he narrated his own imaginary life story. (8/13/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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Far out. I love *art brut*.


Fascinating work. You wonder what he might have done had he had another, happier upbringing, or even just more modern treatment methods.


Very similar to the output of Henry Darger.


To everyone saying he was a molester- it is and will continue to be common for the abused to become abusers until we discover a way to prevent the cycle from occurring or create restorative justice. It in no way excuses the behavior but he was victimized as a child. Not rarely those who are and go untreated and never receive help go on to externalize the feelings of pain and helplessness inflicted upon them onto others.


Wow, that guy went through hell. It's good that they took him in (because he was a danger to others) and gave him the opportunity to do his art.


TIL In the 1970s the police discovered a couple who had kept their daughter imprisoned inside a locked room for 13 years. With no contact with the outside world, little stimulation, and very limited communication with her parents her brain wasn’t capable of learning any language. (8/12/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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We learned about her in nursing school. She was never able to assimilate after she was found by authorities and would just masturbate all the time. The fucked up part was that the parents had other children that were brought up normally.


IIRC the people she lived with for a while (I want to say a psychologist or perhaps a social worker) actually made some headway in terms of teaching her sign language but then she was moved to another home and her language skills regressed. I'll try to find the link and share here. Poor Genie.


She is still alive living in an undisclosed location in California, according to this Wikipedia article. Unfortunately, it seems like she lived a very terrible life.


Even her body was affected by the abuse. Her father kept her tied, naked, to a chair. So when she was found she had a very hard time walking around. What is even more concerning is the family history. The fist born baby in the family died because of pneumonia after she was put into the garbage because her father found her crying annoying.


I know a girl that was kept basically isolated for years by her abusive parents. They pretty much just left her in crib in her room until she was about 4. It took her years to learn how to talk after she was sent to live with her grandparents. Unfortunately, they were crazy religious people so she then had to deal with years of psychological abuse. They almost didn't come to her wedding because there would be drinking and dancing by some guests.


TIL a live recording of pop saxophonist Kenny G’s “Going Home” is played in businesses/stores/stations/on TV throughout China at the end of the day. Many Chinese people associate the song with going home or finishing work, though they do not know the track or artist (8/13/2019) ~ Today I Learned

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The Chinese "Closing Time"


In an NPR interview on this topic, Kenny G was asked if anything changed for him as a result of his music being everywhere in China. He said there was one minor change. He doesn't get paid royalties for the music (at least at the time), so it wasn't the money. Instead he needed to change his sets when he toured the country. Normally "Going Home" is played at a mid point of the concert. But he found when he did that for his audiences in China, they'd get up and leave before the concert is over. Now he plays it as the last song of the evening.


"Kenny G was an early investor in Starbucks" Damn . . .


Full relevant text from wiki: >Since 1989, Kenny G's recording "Going Home" from the Kenny G Live album has become an unconventional mega-hit throughout China: It has become the unofficial national closing song for businesses such as food courts, outdoor markets, health clubs, shopping malls and train stations throughout the country.[37] Many businesses begin piping the music over their loudspeakers shortly before closing at night. Television stations also play the song before ending their evening broadcasts. Many Chinese, when asked, say they associate the song with the need to finish their activity or business and go home (although they may not even know the name of the song or its artist).


Friends of mine here in Australia used to live in an area where every night at around 7:30pm an anthropomorphic animal named Big Dog would come on the TV and climb into bed, while an announcer said "Good night, girls and boys". My friends' kids would then happily go off to bed. Later they moved to a non-Big Dog area where they had trouble getting the kids asleep, so they got a copy of the Big Dog video and started playing it on the TV every night. Apparently it worked.